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Ssebt 24 Febrayer 2024

Ammu yessiwel Charles Darwin!

Ttaciɣ am xmi neɛɛmeɣ belli nɣiɣ”. D asenti n lektab i zi yettwassen Charles Robert Darwin. Maca tidet waha, Darwin yegga tagrawla s uṭewwer. Theory of Evolution, Taṭiyurit n uṭṭewwer [Taqbaylit: Tamhazt], urid tssenhezz tussna waha, Maca tbeddel udem i wemaḍal.

Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) ‑ Tala‑ thoughtco

Ar lwesṭ n lqern n 19, ttuɣa aṭṭas n yiwdan ttamnen belli tamurt ixerq-itt Rebbi s qaɛ min day-s yellan n imudar (lmal) d lesjur. Yallah 4004 iseggusa waha qbel i Ɛisa. Tcuni, amsebḍi, leɛjayb marra d izumal n jjehd n Rebbi. Zi mani tella tmurt, wer dag‑s yenqis wer dag‑s yemmerni walu.

Taṭiyyurit n Darwin tegga BBUM!

Charles Robert Darwin yeḍfer ijjen tebridt nniḍen deg uxarres x mamek tebda tudert di tmurt. Adlis-nnes umi yegga azwel d azegrar: “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life” (s tmaziɣt: Beddu n yeklusay s uswizi n yixḍer n ugama (Nature) niɣ Asiɣi n yeklusay n arrasat n lemliḥ deg umquṭṭes x tudert). Yettwafser twalat tamezgarut ass n 24 Nuwenbir 1859.

Tala‑ Wikipedia

Afser amezgaru n 1250 n lektub, qḍan deg wass amezgaru. Adlis amezgaru qa-t di lmetḥef n London n umezruy n ugama.

Tasersiwt (thesis statement ) tamezgarut.

Awal n “Evolution” [Aṭewwer] wer t-id‑yider Darwin deg usufeɣ amezgaru n wedlis-nnes. Axarres amezgaru n Darwin dag‑s belli Agama [Natur] teṭṭewwer urid ixerq-itt Rebbi deg ijjen tecti.

Axarres‑a yegga‑s Darwin ddsas, ddsas s ca n tmeslayin yegru‑tent-id zi temriḥt yegga s uɣarrabu (HMS Beagle ) d tdewla ɣer London.

Tisersiwin nniḍen:

Di tidet, axarres n Darwin wer dag‑s bu iceddan aṭṭas. Netta yettwala belli marra min yeddren, itteg tizemmer ḥima ad yaru (ad yemmerni), ad yeqqim uklasi‑nnes yedder. Maca tamurt udrusen dag‑s talawin n tudert, s uyenni, urid marra min yeddren izemmer ad isiɣi. Ḥima ad isiɣi ca n weklasi n imudder di tudert, ittaru aṭṭas, kṭer zi lqanun.

Tarrawt n yeklusa‑ya xellqen‑dd msebḍan di twessaf (amenni waha). Ca zzag‑sen (zi tarrawt) ḥsen zeg inniḍen, zemmren ad siɣin di tudert ḥsen zeg inniḍen, tsiɣi ttarun.

Amenni ttɣimant twessaf isebḥen waha. Darwin isemma manaya s “Survival of Fittest”. ixes ad yini “wenni t-id‑ittawyen iteddren” urid “wenni ijehden”

Ixḍer n ugama. Ijḍaḍ tetten izegzawen ar mani nqeḍɛen.

Afsay deg uwennaḍ [environment].

Di mkul aklasi n min yeddren s-nnej i tmurt, ttemsebḍan imuddar n weklasi-nni di mamek fessyen niɣ mamek ttnaman aked umkan di ddren. Di tegzirt n Galapago, iḥekker Darwin belli mkul aklasi n imudar dag‑s igduden, mkul agdud ibeddel x wenniḍen mala ddren mlagʷajen x wayawya.

Ca n yejḍad (Finch) d ca n icefrawen, mbeddalen x wayawya ɛla ḥsab tigzirin di ddren, acnaw ijḍad yufa ca ɣer-sen acenqub yemsebḍa x yenniḍen. Mamek la d icefrawen mkul agdud d taqcurt‑nnes.

Finch ‑ Tala: Wikimedia

Deg ubeddel tteggen x wayawya, zemmren igduden‑a ad mlagʷajen (di twessaf) x aytmatsen, ar duren d aklasi nniḍen, ataf wer zemmren ad msarun akd uklasi i zi d-qqersen. La dina yufa zzag‑sen Darwin di tegzirt n Galapago.

Ticfert n Galapagos
Ticfert n Galapagos ‑ Tala: galapagos-pro

Abrid n Darwin d azegrar ar Afser.

Qaɛ min dd‑yegru Darwin d tteḥqiq x ṭṭiyurit-nnes n uṭewwer, maca yekka aṭṭas dag‑s ccek, wer yezɛim ad yessufeɣ min yufa di trezzut‑nnes.

Awarni 20 iseggusa x usafar n Beagle i xaf‑s yezɛem. Ca zeg imussnawen d yewdan ferḥen zi min yufa Darwin, ḥesben‑t d tagrawla di tussna. Maca aṭṭas zebblen dag‑s, nnan xaf‑s qa wer yumin, d azindiq, d lmulḥild.

Ddsas n tussna tabyulujit n yiḍ-a.

Urid marra min yufa/yenna Darwin d tidet. Beddu n tudert di Tmurt wer t-yefhim, s-uyenni yiwid axarres n teḥrirt taqdimt di Ttiyurit‑nnes.

Ɛawed wer yendih ca tudert ɣer ijjen tala. Darwin yumen belli mkul aklasi iban‑dd weḥdes, uca iṭewwer.

S lxezret n tussna n wass-a min dd‑yejja Darwin wer yeqqim d lwert.  Maca ura d ijjen umussnaw ma ɣer‑s ccek belli Darwin yegga ijjen lxedmet tmeɣer. Taṭiyurit‑nnes tedwel d ddsas di tussna tabyulujit. Aṭṭas i xaf‑s yettwabnan.

Sejjart tabyulujit n Yewdan (Homo)‑ Tala: Wikipedia

Aseqsi n bnadem ma yekk-d zi lqerd, qat ɛad ittunnuḍ jer inni itamnen s Rebbi d yenni wer zzag‑s ittamnen. Darwin di manaya yenna belli Baɣus d Bnadem carken di lejdud. Maca mani tiwed trezzut s Ujinum d trezzutin nniḍen n tebyulujit ass-a. Di mamek tebda tudert, d manis i dd‑qqersen yewdan, ad ɣer‑s nedwel ɛad s ufessel.

I kenniw? inim‑aneɣ deg ukumuntir minzi ttamnem? d min tessnem?

Ɣer ɛawd: Ammu i tebda tudert.

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