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Ttlat 28 Mayyu 2024

Tutlayt d izumal: Mamec i d-banen ɣer bnadem?

Iwdan, ttemsawaḍen

Beddlen izumal di mamec ttɛicen midden, wcin tibridin d timaynutin maḥend a nedder deg ijjen umaḍal, wer nessin min dag-s ɣa yemsaren deg yimal.

Sxedmen iwdan n yiḍ-a akulur, iwalen d ṣṣewt ḥuma ad saqaren min ittsenneɛ ufus d min tettwalid da. Tizemmar-a ḥuma ad ggen iplanuten, ad ttzemmamen tumlayin, ad msawaḍen, merra manaya iɛawen bnadem ḥuma ad yedder waxxa ttuɣa din ijjen ubeddel deg uklima.

Ɣer umeggaru, iwalen d izumal i yewwin ɣer iles d wagla n tudert n bnadem n yiḍa.

Amsawaḍ s ikuluriten

Ca n 350 000 n useggʷas zi mani

Aked uksid n arrsas d umanganiz, jjin lejdud-nneɣ timitar-nnsen x tmeslayin ula x yilem-nnsen. Ikuluriten ttuɣa-ten d izumal i zi dd-mmalen min ɛnan niɣ min teɛna taseḍma-nnsen.

Ad yili iwdan imezwura, sxedmen d amezwaru uksid n arrsas am ijjen uselɣaɣ (adhésif) niɣ am ijjen ssbaɣet, zi senni ttwaggen arrsumat niɣ “tilwiḥin” n tẓuri.

Iraqqen i ideqqsen x imursuten-a n ssbaɣet, mmalen-d timitar n weḥray niɣ n uḥekki, aya yesskan-d ila ddegg-a yettwassexdem ameknaw ikerrajen d imeqqranen n ikuluriten.

Timeḍlin tiqdimin

Ca n 100 000 n useggʷas zi mani

Lejdud-nneɣ, amezwaru, ttuɣa meṭṭlen [neṭṭřen] imettinen-nnsen aked teqcucin d ca n tmeslayin s watig-nnsent. Leɛzayet, xmi i yettmetta ḥedd, ittejja taseḍma-nni n yewdan ttfekkren-d amettin-nni. Manaya, iɛernen yewdan ḥma ad ttɣilen belli din ijjen tudert-nniḍen bla tenni i ttɛicen.

Amḍal n ijjen uḥenjir

Ca n 24 000 n useggʷas

Di Sunghir, di Rusiya, ijjen uḥenjir ɣer-s jar tenɛac ar teltac n useggʷas aked ijjen tḥenjirt ɣer-s jar tesɛa d ɛecra n iseggusa meḍlen-ten merra, azellif aked uzellif, nnḍen-asen-d uẓẓran (défenses) n umamut. Xenni, iwdan min ked ttuɣa ttɛicen sebɣen-ten s uksid n arssas d azeggʷaɣ d tezrarin.

Asiwel x tnettit

Ca n 100 000 n useggʷas zi mani.

Min ixes ad yini ad tessiwled x tnettit-nnec?

Sxedmen lejdud-nneɣ idmamen d teqcucin maḥend ad mmlen min ɛnan. Iwdan n wakud-nni, ggin manaya maḥend ad sseknen wi llan, man taseḍma min ked ttɛicen, ma d awtem niɣ d tawtemt, d wemkan i ɣer-s deg wamun ɣer wenni niɣ tenni.

Tumlayin n uzemmem

Ca n 77 000 n useggʷas zi mani.

Merra timeslayin-a kessin ca n arrcumat i izemmer ad ttwasxedmen maḥend ad ḥesben niɣ ad jemɛen tumlayin (informations). Ɛad imrezzuten ssawalen x min xsen ad inin arrcumat-a nican.

S ca n ibedduten am yina d imeẓẓyanen i zi d-tebda tizemmar-nneɣ deg wejmaɛ n waṭṭas n tumlayin.

D tumlayin niɣ d ddikuar waha?

Wami ɣrin imerzuten ddegg-a n tmeslayin mmalen-d ila arrcumat ttwasettfen mliḥ. Icimaten (schéma) ttawyen imerzuten ḥum ad inin belli xsen ad inin ajmaɛ n tumlayin maca ḥa d ddikurat waha.

Wami bdan iwdan tteggen tilwiḥin d tqensurin

Ca n 40 000 n useggʷas zi mani.

Xenni, bdan iwdan ttsaqaren-d ifuṭuten s tnayen ar tlata n ilaggʷajen (dimensions) n umaḍal i dasen-d-yunuḍen. Ca n 17 000 useggʷas zi mani, ttuɣa ssmeɣren zi titikniyin timeqqranin n usmedya (représentation), ameknaw pintura, arrsem, amsal, tiɣuzi, asiramik. Xeddmen s ucal, uẓẓran, d ideqqi ca n twalatin, saqaren-d ca n lexdyem, tteḥsaben-tent mxumblent.

Tettwalid (deg ufuṭu) azellif n arrimet x ijjen weẓru min xef ɣzin? Din tirezzutin timassanin i d-yemmlin belli iwdan sillɣen zi ca n taryiwin meẓyent n weẓru-ya, jjin wudem-nnsen yelɣeɣ ḥuma ad zzag-s d-saqaren ca n ḥajet. Imken manaya, d asmedya amezwaru i yettwaggen ḥuma ad saqaren ijjen wudem n bnadem.

Melmi i bdan iwdan ad arin?

Ca n 8000 n useggʷas zi mani, bdan iwdan sxeddamen izumal d tmitar maḥend ad smedyen iwalen d ixarrisen. Ca n marka n furmat n tira i d-yegmin aked luluf n iseggusa.

  • Ttuɣa seḥlulluḍen ca n iqulariyen x ideqqi i yuffen maḥend ad zzag-s saqaren ca n tmeslayin.
  • Izumal n tira timegditin (seg imegdi, cunéifomes) ssmedyant ixarrisen, maca awern-as bdant ssmedyant tifirin (syllabes) d imesliten (sons).

Melmi i bdan iwdan ad ssiwlen?

Wer ssinen ca imussnawen nican melmi. Minzi tutlayt i nessawal wer nzemmer ad tt-naf x yeẓra tesseẓru (fossilisé) drus i nessen x melmi i bdan lejdud-nneɣ ad msawaḍen s ijjen tutlayt temxumbel.

Maca, afabriki d usexdem n ca n tmeslayin, i yettɛeqqaben ɣer 350 000 useggʷas zi mani, ittxiss-as aṭṭas n tzemmar, i yellan tzemmer ad yili bnadem n xenni yeḥwaj tutlayt ḥuma ad isaqar leḥwajeyj-nni.

Min ixes ad yini bnadem “ad yessiwel”?

Tutlayt i nessawal ɣer-s lhimmet d tameqqrant ɣer bnadem. Necnin nesxeddam iles ḥma a nemsawaḍ deg ijjen umaḍal yemxumbel, ayenni iwweḍ ula d netta iggam.

Aked uyenni, teqqim taseqqiḍt-nneɣ ula d nettat teggam ḥma ataf nzemmer a nessiwel, tasenduqt timeslit-nneɣ (la boîte vocale) tehwa s wadday i tmijja. Amkan-nni wadday i tezra timeslatin (codes vocales) ula d netta ibda ittzugrut, min daneɣ-ittejjan a d-nessufeɣ aṭṭas n imeslan (sons).

Maca maḥend bnadem ad yessiwel, ataf ixess a x-as ixelles!

Umi tehwa tasenduqt timeslit-nneɣ ḥuma ad a nezmer a nessiwel, xenni wer nzemmer a nesseɣli a neneffs di twalat d icten. Tzemmer macca ad teqqim tennuɣ deg uqijjaw-nneɣ xenni a nebbuxsi.

Xzaret ɣer isegman wami wer ɣer-sen ca tasenduqt-nni timeslit tehwa, zemmren ad neffsen amec tettḍen ameknaw merra timezwura timessutaḍ. (mammifères)

Tala: humanorigins.si.edu

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