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Lexmis 30 Mayyu 2024

Tteswirt n temdint n Iɣessasen di talawin n umezruy (2/2)

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Yura‑t: Mustafa Lɣadiri , yerr-it ɣer Tmaziɣt Andic Cahid d Majid Aqelɛi

Yessiwel umssebrid Lḥusayen Ben Muḥemmed Lwazzan ittwassnen s Lyun Afrikan s waṭṭas n ifruriyen-nniḍen minzi ila izwar-as yekka x temnaḍt-a, mani iwca ijjen usnumel yezded x temdint-a deg udlis-nnes « asnumel n Ifrikiya » mani inna : “teggʷej temdint-a, ittsemma Iɣisasen, x Mlilet s ca n ɛicrin n mil, ttuɣa unuḍen-as leswar mliḥ, ɣer-s lmuyyi yekna.”

Ttuɣa ttasen-d ɣer-s iɣerruba zi Venezia, tteggen tasebbabt aked ayt Fas, i zi rebbḥen xirebbi n ttmneyat, maca zi sseɛd aɛeffan, ataf agellid amaynu n Fas ad ɣer-s ilin ca n imxumbal d imeqqranen aked mmi-s n ɛemmi-s, uca yelbet aked lɛesker-nnes ḥma ad ibedd deg wudem-nnes. Xenni, Fernando, agellid n Spaniya, yegga ijjen uplanu ḥuma ad iḥewwes Iɣesasen, uca yeṭṭef-itt bla ddenf, minzi agellid n Fas, wer iwiḍ ad d-issenjem tamdint, rewlen zzag-s ayt bab-nnes zegga i tewḍa [21].

Xelli manaya iban deg wudem-nnes, maca waxxa amenni ixess a nfekk ca n imxumbal-nnes, am lhimmet n Lmersa n Iɣessasen d waddad n uḥewwes-nnes d ugellid i day-s iwcin fus atg….

Min ttuɣa yeqqimen zeg Iɣisasen. Tala: Google.

Di min iqqnen ɣer lhimmet n temdint i yellan am Lmersa n tsebbabt d ijjen uraq d aɛeskri s lhimmet, aya munen x-as merra inmzruyen d ijyugrafiyen, amek nenna, d lhimmet-n lmersa-nnes tus-d umi ɣer-s raq yessbeḥ mani i d-yusa qibalt i ca n tneddam tindalusiyin am Salobrena d tegzirin n Lmenkkeb [22] amek isebbaben n Venezia i ttuɣa i dd-ttasen n ubeddel n tsebbabt aked Lmuɣrib deg wakud n Imarniyen, awerna-tsen Iweṭṭasiyen, ula qbel ma ad banent tnayen n ddewal.

Maca min ittwnnan ila agellid Aspanyu Fernando yuf-itt d sibbet zegga agellid n Fas yesha x temdint, mala nekker nedwel ɣer umezruy n wuḍuf n Spanya i temdint deg useggʷas n 1506, a naf agellid Aweṭṭasi Muḥemmed Ccix immut deg useggʷas n 1504, zi senni yeṭṭef ugellid Muḥemmed Apurtuɣali i yella ijjen zi twacunt-nnes isnekker x-as aɣewweɣ, aked imuxmbal imeqqranen i ttuɣa ẓrin Iweṭṭasiyen zzat-sen deg wakud-a zeg umezruy n Lmuɣrib.[23]

S uya, Lḥassan tuɣa-t d ccihed x wakud i di tt-ṭṭfen Ispunya, maca deg useggʷas n 1508 yeẓra ẓeyyar x temdint n Wazila seg Ipurtuɣaliyen, mamec imsedder aked wami bayɛen Ccrif Aseɛdi Muḥemmed Lqa’im bi amr Allah deg yeffus n Lmuɣrib aseggʷas n 1509.[24]

Lhimmet n temdint d nettat, d ayenni i tt-yejjin ad tessnewju imetlaɛ i d-ikkin zeg wandalusen i d-yeffɣen zi lmersa n Andrac, Clubaniya d Mortel deg useggʷas n 1493[25], mamec lmersa-ya wa isebḥen min ɣer-s d-ttasen ikabaren imadduden zeg wandalus [26].

Din wi iqqaren ila Aba Ɛabdullah Muḥemmed Nnasri, agellid ameggaru n Ayt Nser min xef d-wesqen zi Granada, yeḍra di Lmersa-ya deg useggʷas n 1492 qbel ma ad iraḥ ɣer Fas zegga i das-yewca ugellid Aweṭṭasi ttesriḥ, xenni i yenna i wewzir-nnes Lɛeqili ad yari ijjen tqessist, isemma-as “taqiraḍt i yufuḥen i yiman deg uḥeccem n ugellid n Fas” iqqar dag-s:

Ay agellid igelliden n waɛraben d ignawen … egg zzag-neɣ s wudem

Cek d ajjar, netter zzay-k s jjuret icewwren … a x-aneɣ tessggʷjed timegga n zzman. [27]

Din wi iqqaren ɛawed ila agellid Aqurayci Ɛebderraḥman Ben Muɛawiya, ittwassnen s Ddaxil niɣ asiwan n Qurayc, iẓwa ɣer wandalus zi Lmersa-ya, mani ttuɣa izeddeɣ ɣer xwal-s Inefziyen, zegga yewḍa leḥkam n lejdud-nnes n Bani Umayya x ufus n Bani Lɛebbas di Dimaceq aseggʷas n 132 ahijri [28] zi ssa nzemmer a nini ila min inna Lḥasan Ben Muḥemmed Lwezzan,ttuɣa-t d tidett umi Ispunya ffɣen zi Mlilet i ttuɣa ṭṭfen ca n iseggusa udrusen (awerni tesɛa n iseggusa zegga i t-ṭṭfen).

Mamec Lwezzan umi i d-iɛda x Iɣessasen, ttuɣa-t ɛad adu leḥkam n Ispunya, maca min ijjin Ispunya ad ṭṭfen Iɣessasen, nitni ila xsen ad sqesḥen jjihet n tindeffart n Mlilet, ḥaca imjahden xenni, nnan ad sugen x Iɣessasen zi Tẓuḍa, d aya i yeqqar Lwezzan s ixef-nnes « tedwel Taẓuḍa d lxirbet waha ar mani ḥewwsen Ispunua Iɣessasen, itter ijjen lqayed zi lquyyad n Fas, ḥuma ad as-wcen ttesriḥ ad as-iɛawed lebni, iwec-as ttesriḥ ugellid, xenni uca ɛawden-as. Ma lux din jar imselmen d Irumiyen ijjen umseksi, uca kul twarat wi tt ɣa yeccen zzag-sen ». [29].

Manaya, immal-d ila Iɣisasen, ila tella adu ufus n Ispuniya. Nettwala ila Lḥasan Lwezzan yekk-d x wemkan-a deg iseggusa n ɛecrin zi lqern wis 16, mala nessen ila argaz-a yeffeɣ Fas ɣer iftasen n uɣelluy mani wtin Iweṭṭasiyen ijjen ẓẓiyyar x Waẓayla i ttuɣa ṭṭfen Ipurtuɣaliyen aseggʷas n 1508, zi senni iraḥ ɣer tmura n Ssudan deg uzmez n 1509, ɛawed iraḥ ɣer Lḥijaz aseggʷas n 1516, izdeɣ di Ccam aseggʷas n 1517, di Tunes 1520 mani i ɣa yedwel d ameḥbus di Napoli deg Uṭalyan, zegga immeksi ṭṭerf i tegzirt n Djerba zi ca n iqersanen d Iṭalyanen [30].

Umi yemla ɣer wemɣar Andalus i yettren zeg ugellid Aweṭṭas, ḥma ad iɛawed lebni n Taẓuḍa ḥma ad imseksi aked Ispunya, yeqqar umzruy ila ixes ad yini Ɛali Ben Brahim Lɛeṭṭar Landalusi i ttuɣa d ijjen zeg yemɣaren n ugellid Ben L’aḥmar – netta d mmis n Lqayed Loja – ttuɣa yeḍra deg Iɣssasen aked ugellid i xef wesqen zeg wandalus Abi Ɛabdellah L’aḥmar. Maca zegga immutti ɣer Fas, ikellef-it ugellid aweṭṭas [31] ḥuma ad isnufsel yimi, adu timmuɣra-nnes jahden imjahden di temnaḍt-a ar mani i tt-snufslen zegga tettwaṭṭef 28 iseggusa, ittsemma kṭer zi xemsa uɛecrin useggʷas (1506-1533).

Maca tabridt i zi snufslen Iɣisasen, ttuɣa qqaɛ wer d-tuḍi x taynit la n Iweṭṭasiyen la n Ispunya. Tḥajit-nnes ɣer-s aṭṭas n wudmawen, am tḥajit n Marmul Karbaxal [32], amek i das-d-yewḍ lexbar d netta aqqa-t di Fas, mani yeẓra ijjen zeg iɣewwaɣen Ispunya iselmen, isemma ixef-nnes Sliman. [33] Ittɛawad ila yemsar ijjen umenɣi jar n lqayed n settin d ijjen tlata zeg iɛeskriyen-nnes, xenni ina fekkren di ca n uplanu ḥuma ad nɣen lqayed-nnsen, uca qqimen di teqsebt umi qqaren Lɛafiya (Alafia), ar mani i d-wḍen imnayen Irifiyen zi Tẓuḍa sshewnen adaf-nnsen ɣer temdint.

D aya i yemsaren nican, mani iɛeskriyen-nni wer wwiḍen ad ggen walu deg useggʷas n 1533, xenni sekken iɛeskriyen-nni ijjen zeg imeddukal-nnsen d areqqas ɣer lqayed n Tẓuḍa ḥuma ad t-xebbren s min zeɛmen ad ggen x ukapitan-nnsen.

S wammu udfen imjahden s ca n alef n wemnay ɣer temdint ḥuma ad x-asen qḍan qaɛ, wer zzag-sen yenjim ula d ijjen mɣar wenni issiwḍen lexbar ɣer Mlilet, maca xelli amenni ttuɣa iraḥ lḥal x Ispunya ḥuma ad ggen ca n ḥajet i zi d ɣa rren tamdint ɛawed.

Maca s usḥissef d ameqqran, zegga snufslen Iɣisasen, ad tebda ad tennesfeḍ zi twegimt n midden, d min teẓra d tmeslayin maci am Taẓuḍa i ɣa yeqqimen tedder ḥuma ad teḍfer ajahed n yemjahden n Iqelɛiyen.

Amek nessen ɛawed ila tamdint-a ttuɣa terdel zegga i ttuɣa Marmul ila yettwaṭṭef ɣer Iseɛdiyen (1557-1577) wer zzag-s yeqqim walu, amek yenna Marmul … « Mɣer iɣrem i yellan x usḍar, i yella wer zemmren ad redlen s lamynet. Maca xmi i d-ttasen imeɣrabiyen ḥuma ad cerzen timura, tteggen x-as iɛessasen, ḥuma ad ẓren ma wer din bu ca n texcebt zeg Ispunya, minzi ila ttasen-d zi Mlilet niɣ zi Spanya, ḥuma ad ksin ca n inekraf ». Irni : « Wami sseqsiɣ, mayemmi igelliden n Fas, wer das-ɛiwden lebni, nnan-ayi ila imezdaɣ ɛemmer-s ma ttuɣa-ten di laman minzi tus-d tudes i Mlilet, mala ggin g-s ca n teqsebt, ataf aɣasṭar x-as ktar zi min d-tessadaf ». [34]

Aked min iɛawed Marmul, nettaf-it wer yeggʷij ca x tidett, minzi ayt Buyafar ; d Iɣisasen, ila lebda aqqa-ten deg umseksi aked Ispunya, ttuɣa imezdaɣ n teqbilt hekkʷlen Lmexzen d Ispunya, ila hekkʷlen imeggura-ya minzi ila ttbeddan zzat-sen, kerrfen ineḥbas, ttakren iɣerruba-nnsen.

Aked manaya, Spaniya ila tettegg bezzez x lmexzen, ḥuma ad hwan x Buyafer, al mani iwweḍ zzag-sen lḥal ad stelɛen ledcur-nnes merra, amek daneɣ-qqaren ca n lekwaɣeḍ n Lmexzen aked ca n imɣaren n teqbilt n Iqelɛiyen, zzag-sen Amɣar Lmextar Alɣem Aqelɛi di lqern 19. [35]

Wer nzemmer a nekk a neɛda d neccin nessawal x wemkan-a amezruyan bla ma a nbedd ɣer uraqq-nnes d teqsebt-nnes amec daneɣ-ttɛawaden isugam imezruyanen d irkyulujiyen.

Mala nessen ila beṭṭu yellan jer uḥewwes n Mlilet d uḥewwes n Iɣessasen wer yeɛdi tesɛa n iseggusa, da i ɣa nessen lhimmet n temdint-a d leswar-nnes deg wakud n ddewla Tamarinit, d lhimmet-nnes minzi ila tella d tisi i zi dd-ttkumasan ḥuma ad snufsen Mlilet, mala nesssen ila wer x-as teggʷij ca aṭṭas, mani i d-tusa x uɛrur n Mlilet, s uya ila ɣer-s lhimmet d taɛeskrit, mamec i d-tusa deg weɣbay n Iqelɛiyen x weftas, aked uɣezdis-nnes taliwin n waman d iɣezran ittazzlen i ɣa yewcen aman i Mlilet i ttuɣa wer ɣer-sen bu aman, s uya fekkren ad tt-ṭṭfen nican zegga ḥewwsen Mlilet.

Ɣer-neɣ ccwarti ila isugam imezruyanen i yettwarin s Tespanyut ḥḍan aṭṭas n tmeslayin x temdint-a min xef i wer nessin bu aṭṭas.

Ḥma a nessen raq-nnes nican: Nettat aqqa-t x Ayt Buyafar d Ayt Ciker, tnayen-a n tegrawin ttwaḥsabent x Ayt Ciker – di jjihet n usammer xmi i yettades ɣer tmurt n Ayt ciker [ayt cicar] x webrid i yettawin ɣer Mlilet (ass-a d ayda icerken jar tagrawent n Iɛezzanen d tegrawt n Ayt Ciker). Tirezzutin tirkyulujiyin ttuɣa mmalent-id ila nettat tiriw aṭṭas x Mlilet [36], tuɣa leswar-nnes ttakkʷaḍen ar alfayen mitru, dag-s tlata n iklussay:

Lqulla, amek i t-neṭṭqen ayt bab n tmurt, yekk-d zeg wawal n “Lqelɛa”, d wa d isem i yexsen ad yini s Tmaziɣt n wemkan-a tawrirt niɣ amkan i yuɛlan, ttuɣa tettwassen di lekwaɣed araguniyen s “tewrirt tacemlalt” niɣ “Rqudjet tacemratc” minzi ttuɣa tettban d tacemlalt x teɛrurt [37]. Lqelɛa-ya aqa-tt x ijjen teɛrurt tuɛla s 77 mitru x lebḥer [38] maca manaya wer ixes ca ad yini ila d aya i ttuɣa dag-s illan minzi redlen-t, amek iɛawed Marmul Karbaxal s ixef-nnes, bla ma a nettu asinef i das-ggin. Qqaren ca n iwessura belli ar iseggusa n lqern 20, ttuɣa ttbanen-dd ca n leḥyuḍ zzag-s, maca lux tennsfeḍ, wer zzag-s yeqqim walu.

Sidi Mesɛud d teɛrurt iɣessasen, sa i tettban tawririt umi qqaren “lqullet d tacemlalt” – Tala: Wikipedia.org Miguel González Novo – Flickr: Alcudia de Berberia

Maca limert n ddruj ɛad yella x yimiḍer n tewrirt illa ittawin ɣer Lgelɛa i ttuɣa yellan s nnej i tewrirt [39]

Tamdint ttuɣa qqaren-as “Iɣisasen” i yeddalen imiḍren n usammer d yeffus d usammer n uɣelluy n tewrirt s ixef-nnes, maca tuɣziwin i yeggin Ispunya mmalent-id tifras n temdint d leswar-nnes d tzeddiɣin-nnes, maca aqqa-t deg wammas n ijjen lɣabet i yeẓẓun x tewrirt deg iseggusa imeggura, min ijjin awaḍ ɣer temdint immerni iqseḥ aṭṭas, mamec ila ufin ca n iqcucen d limet n uɣerrabu n tsebbabt min ttuɣa d-ttasen isebbaben n Venezia. Mamec ufin belli ila xeddmen x ca n tmeslayin di temdint-a, mani ca n llsas n leswar ɛad aqqa-ten da, leswar-a i ttuɣa izzuggarden s ca n tnayen n ikilumiṭren, mani x wudem n tewrirt nettaf din amrabeḍ n Sidi Mesɛud Aɣisas (ittwassnen s yat bab n tmurt s “arruf ilesḥen”) [40] niɣ “arruf iničan” [41] ibeṭṭa-ten ijjen yeɣzer umi qqaren iɣer n Iɣisasen ittkebban di lebḥer ṭṭerf i lmersa amezruyan n temdint x wudem n uɣelluy.

Amkan mani i d-tusa tamdint n Iɣisasen. Tala: https://maps.app.goo.gl/dS95gQhYjeaHRSe58

Mmlent-id tuɣziwin i yeggin x min iqqimen zeg Iɣissasen, ila tamdint ula tella adu i tewrirt jar Iɣisasen d yeɣzer n Ḥelluba.

Wis tlata: Lmersa n Iɣisasen, nzemmer a nessen ila aqa-t wedday i tewrirt x uẓelmaḍ x lebḥer, s uya lqelɛa ila tettsajja x lmersa x yeẓẓelmeḍ mamec i tettsajja x temdint zi jjihet n usammer d yeffus d uɣezdis n uɣelluy adu i tewrirt tacemlalt [42].

Maca min itteqqsen deg wul ila tamdint-a min ttuɣa ɣer-s ijjen ccan d ameqqran x lebḥer acemlal, tedwel azgen ameqqran n tarwa n tmurt wer tt-ssinen, mamec imerzuten qaɛ wer dag-s tt-is-ttiwin, aked uya, imezdaɣ i das-yudsen wer x-as ssinen walu. Manaya ittban-d zi min dag-s iqqimen illa ittwaṭṭemmes, s tidet manaya aqqa-t x yiri x inni ittkellfen s wayda n lebni, mamec tagrawt ula d nettat x yiri-nnes ad terr taynit i wemkan-a.

Amrezzu Arkyuluji Rafael De Castro yura x-as deg udlis-nnes zi min qqimen zeg Iɣisasen [43], ula d uselmad Ḥasan Lfigigi deg udlis-nnes “tanezbayt tameɣrabit i Ispunya di Mlilet” [44] akid-s ca n ttsawar i temdint. Maca tiɣuri taqdimt i yettwaggen x temdint d min yura umerzu Uspanyu Rafael Fernandez de Castro y Pedrera i yeẓlin deg umezruy n Arrif aqdim, mamec yura ula x temdint n Iɣisasen min xef nessiwel qbel [45].

D aya, s uzegzel, amezruy n Iɣisasen i ttuɣa iwwḍen tqiccet maca tewḍa di tattut al mani zzag-s qqimen mɣar Iɣebrawen ittweddiren kul aseggas, zegga i dag-s ẓẓun lecjur, danita awal-inu x temdint-a ttexseɣ ad zzag-s rreɣ taynit ɣer temdint-a d uùezruy-nnes zzat i wayda n lebni d tarezzut d usuni.

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