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Letnayen 4 Mars 2024

Wami yemɣer walli-nneɣ: yemxumbel, temxumbel akid-s tudert!

Wami dewlen iwdan imezwura aqqa-ten zzat i ca n yemxumbal i yeqqnen ɣer twennaḍt, wer ufin mɣar ad smeɣren ddat-nnsen, smeɣren akid-s ula d alli-nnsen idewlen d ameqqran kter, maca yemxumbel ɛawed kter.

Alliten knin, mxumblen, zemmren ad msurrufen, ad stukan aṭṭas n tumlayin. Manaya ila yella d lmzeyyet d tameqqrant ɣer yewdan imezwura di mamec ttemsurrufen jar-asen, niɣ aked iberraniyen min ked ttmsaḍafen.

Itripla walli n bnadem deg wakud n uṭewwer-nnes. Ass-a alli-nneɣ neccin, iwdan n yiḍa, neɛelm alli ameqqran, wenn yemxumbel jar tmezwura iddren (primates vivants).

Tiddi n walli tegma ɣir s cwayt cwayt

Jar 6 d 2 melyun n iseggusa

Dewlen iwdan imezwura, deg wakud-nni, bdan gguren amen bedden, ttfabrikan ca n imassen hewnen. Tiddi n walli temɣer cwayt, maca ḥa s drust.

Temɣer n tiddi n walli d arrimet

Jar 2 Melyun ɣer 800 000 useggʷas

Deg wakud-a wa, mzellaɛen iwdan deg umaḍal amen yekmel, mmelqan aked twennaḍin d jjdid deg waṭṭas n tmenẓawin (continents). Imɛaliten-a, qqnen ɣer zzyada di tiddi n ddat, maca weyyen, zeg ijjen uɣezdis-nneḍni, ḥma tiddi n walli n bnadem ad temmerni.

Tiddi n walli iggam deɣya deɣya

Jar 800 000 useggʷas ar 200 000 useggʷas

Tiddi n walli n bnadem teṭewwer deɣya deɣya deg ijjen wakud min g illa ijjen ubeddel n uklima d adrami. Ejjin alliten-a imeqqranen, imxumblen iwdan imezwura deg wakud-a ad msurrufen jar-asen, ad msurrufen aked twennaḍt-nnsen s ijjen tebridt-nneɣni. Wami yedwel, iqqseḥ a nessen mamec i ɣa yili uklima, manaya ijja alli n lejdud-nneɣ ad yemɣer deɣyya s uyenni i yeqqimen ddren.

Maɣer zzyada-ya temsar x tiddi n walli ?

Igrafiken immalen ibeddilen n uklima d ibeddilen i yellan deg walli
(© Copyright Institution Smithsonia)

Immal-d ugrafik n ḍarreɛ mamec aklima n tmurt inneqleb di 3 melyun n useggʷas ameggaru. Xzer mamec aneqbel-nni igeɛɛed jar 800 000 d 200 000 n useggʷas. Maḥend a nebda agrafik-a, ttuɣa ixess imussnawen ad ɣren imaɣuzen (fossiles) n ca wurganen d imeẓẓyanen ttwafen deg yefran isullsen n ukyanus (océaniques)

Igrafiken n wadday mmalen-d zzyada n tiddi n walli di 3 melyun n useggʷas i yeɛdan, jarkṭer jar 8000 d 200 000 n useggʷas. Ijjen walli d ameqqran izemmer ad imsurruf aked tumlayin d timaynutin i ɣa yilin d lemzeyyet d tameqqrant deg wakud n ubeddel n uklima adrami. Ḥma ad yettwabna ugrafik-a, ɛebren imussnawen inuqqbilen n walli n 160 n bnadem amezwaru.

Anẓaten x walliten d iqdimen

“Indukasten” d ca n kupiyat mserwasen n daxel n walliten n bnadem iqdimen d inni n wamenɛad. Dag-sen i di tella tiddi d furma n walliten i ttuɣa yellan deg uqecqac n lejdud-nneɣ.

Mamec ttwaggen indukasten-nni?

Alliten-nni wer tteɛiqqiben ca am yeẓra, ad dewlen d imuɣizen. Ttehruran, ttejjan ijjen unuqqib ɣer daxel i tqabsat n uzellif.

Ca n twalatin, tettɛemmer tarrist (sédiments) inuqqiben n walli, uca tteqsiḥen. S manaya tteggen umi neqqar ijjen indukast zɣer-s waha. Ttsaqaren-d imussnawen ca n indukasten ḥuma ad ten-ɣren, am yenni illan s nnej.

Maḥend ad nawi ijjen leɛbar iqaden i tiddi n walli, ttekksen imussnawen indukast n weqcac, uca ttzemmamen aksay-nnes (volume) mamec sxeddamen ijjen utumudunsitumitri (tomodensitométrie) maḥend ad ɛebren daxel n uqecqac.

Semqudda alli-nnec aked wenni n ucimpanzi

Iwdan zi “tmezwura” d Icimpanziyen zeg imudar i daneɣ-yudsen aṭṭas i neccin.

Alli n bnadem amezwaru ttuɣa yerwes deg wenni n ucimpanzi. Maca aked lweqt, alliten n yewdan d inni n ucimpanzi gmin s waṭṭas n tebridin imsebḍan.

Tazzla n tmerniwt n walli

Alli n Icampanziyen iggam deɣya deɣya qbel i tlalit-nnes. Maca ittili idqel di tmerniwet-nnes awerni i tlalit.
(© Copyright Institution Smithsonian)
Alli n bnadem iggam deɣya deɣya qbel i tlalit, ula zeg useggʷas-nnes amezwaru ar temẓi.
(© Copyright Institution Smithsonian)
Izdayen

Taqcurt n walli timɣezzet (temporal) day-s drus n tmetta tacemlalt, manaya ixes ad yini belli wer din bu ca n yezdayen (connexions) jer teɣrasin tiɛasabiyin.

Ɛelmen iwdan aṭṭas zi tmetta-ya tacemlalt di teqcurt n walli timɣezzet, s uya d lemzeyyet di min iqqnen ɣer yezdayen jar teɣrasin tiɛasabiyin d tzemmar ḥuma ad msurrufen aked waṭṭas n tmulayin.

Tiddi-nnes !

Iwezzen walli amjahdi n ucampanzi n ubliɣ: 384 g (0,85 lb)

Iwezzen walli amjahdi n bnadem n yiḍ-a: 1 352 g (2,98 lb)

Mayen itteḥwaja d lemzeyyet n ijjen walli d ameqqran

Lewzen n walli di min iqqnen ɣer ɣer yinirji-nnes i yetteḥwaja arrimet n bnadem. (© Copyright Institution Smithsonian)
Min teɛna lemzeyyet n ijjen walli d ameqqran?

Izemmer walli n bnadem n yiḍa ad ittegg manaya:

– Ittestuka aṭṭas n tumlayin d tiqdimin ;

– Ijemmeɛ, ittmsurruf aked tumlayin, ittic tanaṭṭuft (résultat) deg uzgen n usigund.

– Ittaf ifessayen i yemxumbal, ad ixarres di txarrisin ad yegg ifuṭuten d iwengimen (abstraits).

Izemmer ad yegg mana kṭer ɛad zi manaya

Mayen itteḥwaja beɛda?

– Alli ameqqran isekkef aṭṭas n yinirji. Aqqa alli-nnec iwezzen ca n 2% zi min twezzen arrimet-nnec amen tekmel, maca ittɣasṭar 20% n wuksijin-nnec, isekkef 20% ɛawed zeg idammen ittazzlen deg iẓuran.

– Alliten imeqqranen ttexsen ad inin izellifen d imeqqranen, manaya itteggen tarwa ɣer yewdan d tmezwura ad yili yeqseḥ, iccur s leḥriq.

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