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Lexmis 22 Febrayer 2024

Tamiṭulujit tamaziɣt: min xef tessiwel tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt ? (2/4)

Ali El bouhammouchi

Zdat ma a nessiwel x isental n tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt, labud a nini belli xmi nxezzar ɣer tenfas iqqnen ɣer tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt (Allas amiṭuluji) nettaf msebḍant deg ufruri-nsent zi temnaḍt ɣer tenneḍni, maca anefru-nsent nettaf-it imrawas di marra Tamezɣa. Manaya iskana illa tammurt n Tmezɣa ila ɣer-s timyurin d tensayin timiṭulujitin d ijt.

 Xmi neqqar niɣ xmi ntesla tinfas n tmaziɣt ttafeɣ illa azwel n usuter-a wer yelli ca deg umkan-nnes, ixess-aneɣ a nessars aseqsi s wammak nneɣni : min x  wer tessiwel tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt? minzi tamiṭulujit tamaziɣt wer tejji min x wer tessiwel. Tessiwel x tmurt d ujenna, x wefgan, x temɣart. Tessiwel x usɣudid n umeɣrad, x tmeddit d wass, tessiwel x tfukt d tziri d yetran,….  Deg usuter-a stiɣ ca n isental d min xafsen teqqar tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt s uzegzel : 

Asnay/ tiskiwt n umeɣrad 

Yidar d Frobenius ijj n umiy ittawi d illa ameɣrad iqqim x waccawen n ijj n ugenduz, agenduz-a mala inhezz ameɣrad ad irdel[1]

Tammurt Ɛawed  wer telli bu d ijt, nettat tebḍa x sa n teskiwin ijt sennej i tenneḍni, teddaren deg-s iwdan di teski tiss semmus mala nessenta asiḍen zi wadday, wadday qaɛ tteddren din “tidjal”, tidjal d imeɣnawen d imeẓyanen aṭṭas fruryen-d zi tmellalin n tkeṭṭufin, tiskiwt-a deg-s tallest wer telli am tiskiwt-nneɣ di tella tfawt, di ca n umiyen nneḍni qqaren aqqa tteddren deg-s ula d amẓiwen d ixmucen (igezzalen :Iwdan d iquḍaḍen aṭṭas “qazam”). Waxxa msebḍant tenfas issawalen x tiskiwin n tmurt, maca marra msasant belli wadday n tmurt netta d amaḍal n laryaḥ d imdunen d iwdan immuten minzi nitni nnumen aked tallest zemmaren ad din ddren.

Sennej i sa n tiskiwin n tmurt dini sa n ijenwan, jar ujenna d tmurt din sin n imaḍalen beṭṭan jar asen. Awarni manaya marra din ara i zi d ilul kulci.

Ajenna di tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt netta d tazeddiɣt n imeɣnawen imattayen am tanirt di tḥajit n unamir itwassnen.

Amsawaḍ aked umaḍal n wadday n tmurt ittili s wanuten d yefran d talawin d tseklutin, s uyenni iferḍas-a d ifuẓaren ɣer-sen addur imɣer di tdelsa tamaziɣt[2].

Amsawaḍ jar ujenna d tmurt ittili s “tiṭṭ n ujenna” (di tenfust n unamir). Iwdan izaykuten illa qqaren ɛawed aqqa idurar ssadasen afgan ɣer ujenna.

Afgan d tmurt

Din ijj n umiy d amaziɣ iqqar qa aẓur n wefgan d wadday n tmurt, minzi deg-s i dd-kkren imarawen imezwura n dduniyt. Umiy-a amaziɣ itterra wadday n tmurt am uɛeddis n tyemmat. Afgan ittlul-dd sin n twalatin, twalat tamezwarut ilul-dd zeg uɛeddis n yemma-s tameqqrant tammurt, twalat tis sin zeg uɛeddis n yemma-s tabyulujt. Aɛeddis n tmurt lulen-dd zeg-s iwdan d imudar d uẓu (iɣemmuyen am arbiɛ d tseklutin…).

Umiy-a isfires tammurt am ijj n yirem d ameqqran, s uya nettaf aṭṭas n temnaḍin di Tmezɣa ɣer-sent assaɣen am imsellan n arrimet am aɣil, ixf, tiṭṭ… Din ɛawed yenni i das-iqqaren i tala “tiṭṭ”, minzi xezzaren ɣer tala d tiṭṭ n tmurt, aman n tala d imeṭṭawen n tmurt.

Kṭer zi manaya Imaziɣen illa qqaren aqqa tammurt taka am mamek itaka ufgan, s uya sselgamen (teṭṭfen wer tetteged ) ad tuwted di tmurt s iḍaren ḥma wer tettxeyyiq, tamaren ɛawed tarwa nsen ad weqqren tammurt.

Tameddit d wass

Aṭṭas n umiyen imaziɣen issiwlen x uẓur n tmeddit d wass, a nidar ca zeg-sen :

– Deg umiy-nni i d nidar di tseddart yezwaren, imarawn imezwura n dduniyt umi d-ffɣen zi wadday n tmurt mani tella tallest ɣer tiriwt n tmurt mani tella tfawt, duwlen ssnen umi qqaren akud beṭṭan jar wass acemlal anafaw di yella timmuzɣa maca netta d aquḍaḍ minzi illa ittekk ijj n useggʷas, d tmeddit taberkant taɛeffant tazegrart illa itekken sin n iseggusa, minzi deg usenti n tugi illa timedditin ujarent ussan[3]

Zi lebda tuɣa tameddit teqqen ɣer tallest d tubberkent d tiggʷdi d imizi, minzi tameddit d akud ittexsen imeɣnawen innufaren d laryaḥ d imdunen, s uyenni sselgamen deg-s aṭṭas n tilalin am lxezrat di tisit, assired, aḥadi n iɣed… [4]

– deg ijj n umiy nneḍni iqqar aqqa x umezwaru ttuɣa wer telli ca tmeddit, tuɣa tfukt wer tɣelli, tameddit illa tedder deg ifran. Afgan tuẓa ɣer-s tfukt minzi illa tyezzem-it, manaya ijja-t ad iraḥ ɣer tmeddit a zeg-s itter tawasa. Tameddit tessedmer i ufgan teffeɣ-dd tejja tfukt ad teṭṭes s tmeddit ad tnekkar s uzil.[5]

 – Ijj n umiy n Taqbilt n Znaga di Ifyey iqqar aqqa Afgan illa wer issin umi qqaren iḍes, wer iteṭṭes s wass ula s tmeddit, tuɣa lebda iswura yarebbel bla ma ad izemmar ad yeṭṭes niɣ ad yesgunfa, tiṭṭawin-nnes lebda reẓment, manaya illa issaḥal-it itejja-t wer ittqisi taẓyuḍi n tudert. illa ittasem zeg wajjar-nnes aḥerdan ikkalen iṭṭes, minzi aḥerdan tuɣa ɣer-s tixencitin n yiḍes zi mkul anaw d iklan (ikuluren). Afgan tuɣa lebda itetter zeg-s a das yewc cwayt n yiḍes itagi-yas, al lami d ijj n wass yucar-as ijt txencit taberkant tejji t ad iteṭṭes s tmeddit ad itnekkar s wass.[6]

– Ijj n umiy d aqbayli issefra aseḍfer n tmeddit d wass iqqar aqqa sin n wawmaten ittusmaglen zeg wakuc ad ḍelqen takbibat n ifilan n taḍuft, ijjen iḍelleq i tekbibat tacemlalt ittali-dd akides wass, xmi ɣer yaḥel ad issenta umas di tekbibat d taberkant ttali-dd akid-s tmeddit, uca tɣiman ammu.[7]

Tamɣart

 Zi tnifas itwammeglayen di temnaḍin n Tmezɣa issiwel x-as ula d ajellid Yuba wiss sin deg udlis-nnes Libika[8], nettaf tanfust n weyrad umi yeqqes waddad zi temɣart i yessufɣen tanetla-nnes. Tanfust-a mamek tt-ttɛawaden Irifiyen[9]: ijj n wargaz iddakʷal d izem s tmeddit, argaz-a yiwi ijt temɣart ittegg-as marra min trezzu  wer das-itxessi akid-s walu, maca itter zeg-s wer teqqar i ḥedd illa aqemmum-nnes yursuḍ ittgerraɛ-d tujjut d taɛeffant. Al lami d ijj n wass itesla-yas teqqar-itt i yemma-s. Izem teqqim deg-s, yumer tamɣart-nnes ad tessek tagersa yarɣin x uzellif-nnes, al lami iggenfa inna-s awal nni iqqimen d inzi “ttgenfan igezzimen, wer ttgenfin wawalen”.

Tanfust a tettelsen-tt ula di Sus, Imuhag (Twareg), Zemmur… d waṭṭas n temnaḍin n Tmezɣa, temsebḍa di tefrurin d timeẓyanin.

Asufeɣ n wawal ijja izem ad yaɣ x temɣart ad tt-ineɣ (mkul tamnaḍt mamek tessawal x wammak minzi tt-inɣa). S uya afgan amaziɣ iteṭṭef g awal-nnes, ɣer-s d amalad mala yessufeɣ ca n wawal ixessa wer t-issufuɣ.

Aẓur n temnawt

Deg usenti n wakud, tamnawt ila wer telli, xmi ttaḥlen iwdan ttraḥen tteẓlen, iman-nsen itteffeɣ-iten ij n wakud zi ssenni ad dewlen ɣer rrimet-nsen a dd-lulen zeg umaynu.[10]

Deg ijt tneqqist zi Warzazat tesfires tamnawt am ca n uwrik imca wer aked tajjart n yemma-s n ijjen uḥenjir ihlec aṭṭas ma ad yeṭṭef iman-nnes, tenna as tajjart-nni wah; minzi tuɣa wer telli ca mliḥ aked yemma-s n uḥenjir ihercen. Al lami yehlec memmis ula d nettat, tus-d temnawt ɣer-s ula d netta, waxxa tugi yemmas tenna-as temnawt : “manaya wer deg-s bu udwal”, mamek texs tamnawt i uḥenjir-nni amezwaru amenni i das- imsar ula i memmi-s, uca teqqim temnawt lebda i marra yiwdan.[11]

Tamnawt n tzizwit

Nessen belli tzizwit xmi teqqes i utarras tettmetta, maca manis d ikka manaya? din sin n tneqqisin :

– Tamezwarut teqqar aqqa umi ttwaggen imudar yuc-asen wakuc ad stin mamek ɣer ḥḍan x ixf-nsen, fiɣer inna-as i wakuc : “wenni umi ɣer qqseɣ ad immet”, tesla-as tzizwit texs ad tini am netta maca texḍa deg wawal tenna : “wanni umi ɣer qseɣ ad mmteɣ”. [12]

– Tiss sin teqqar belli tzizwit d ufiɣer ttuɣa lebda tmenɣan teṭnazen x wayawya, tenna-as tzizwit i ufiɣer: wer tzemmared ad tegged min tteggeɣ, nec tsaqareɣ-d tammemt i ufgan, itett-itt itegg zeg-s asafar. Yerra xafs ufiɣer : Afgan-nni umi ticced tammemt mɣer ad as-qqseɣ ad immet. Tenna-as tzizwit bla ma ad taka : Ula d necc mɣer ad as-qqseɣ ad mmteɣ. Iḍsa ufiɣer inna : teffeɣ-d tidet zeg imi-nnem a tazizwit.[13]

Aẓur n itran

Zeg umiyen issawalen x uẓur n itran ijj n umiy d aqbayli itterra-t ɣer ibawen , iqqar umiy  aqqa ijjen wargaz inḍar ibawen ɣer ujenna dewlen d itran.[14]

manaya ɣer-s aṭṭas n imaggayen d imeskanen zi tdelsa tamiwant tamaziɣt :

-Di tenfas n Tmezɣa, ijt n tenfust yidar itt id J.Scelles-Millie deg udlis-nnes « Paraboles et contes d’Afrique du Nord » adu azwel « La fève » (abaw) , tanfust a tessawal x ijjen uḥudri d ameẓluḍ ittexs ijten labas xas, aḥudri a illa ɣer-s  ijj n ubaw iṭṭef it ixezzar deg ujenna s tmeddit, ittwala itri amezwaru awarn-as banen d itran nneḍni, iṭṭes uḥudri a yurja baw-nni ɣer-s  deg ufus immarni idwel d aṭṭas n ibawen am mamek mmarnin itran nni deg ujenna. Manaya yerẓem-as tiwwura n yimal zdat-nnes ijji-t yegga agla.

-Di Sus, taqbilt n Iḥaḥan tettren zeg iḥenjiren imeẓẓyanen ḥma ad ẓren ma fsusen deg wawal ad inin : « Yan ubaw s yan itri, sin ibawen s sin itran, kraḍ ibawen s kraḍ itran, … mraw ibawen s mraw itran »[15]

-Din ijt twafit d taqbaylit teqqar : « Tekrez tmazirt s ibawen, ur d as-zmireɣ, d asawen»  Tamrarut n twafit-a: d itran.

-Deg ijt twafit nneḍni x itran, qqaren deg-s : «Ẓẓuɣ takemmijt n ibawen, tewwi d marra Igawawen[16]» . [17]

Mayemmi ussan n uyur n Brayer d ineqsiyen?

Iqqar umiy[18] : Illa din ijt tmeksat d tawessart tukkʷar yur n Innayer, uca ixes ad zays iɣa. Tawessart-a illa ɣer-s ijj n iɣayd tettexs-it aṭṭas tetteggʷed xafs zi tesmeḍ, s uyenni wer ttessufuɣ deg uyur n Innayer, al ass amezwaru zi Brayer id tessufuɣ ad yehda arbiɛ. 

Ataf ad zays iɣa Innayer, itter zi Brayer ad as-yerḍel ijj n wass. Umi d-tussa ad tessufeɣ iɣayd-nnes deg wass ameggaru n Innayer (nettat ittɣil-as d ass amezwaru n Brayer), inɣi-t usemmiḍ. Awarni manaya, Innayer yugi ad as-yerr ass-nnes i Brayer, manaya i d t-ijjin itru mkull ass, s uya Brayer idwel d ayur iccat deg-s wenẓar.

Umiy-a ittwalles di marra Tamezɣa, imsebḍa deg ufruri-nnes[19].

 Aẓur n twiza

 Anegraw n twiza d ijj n wanaw zeg wanawen n temyawasin d tebdadt jar Imaziɣen, ssiɣan deg-s fus i wayawya am deg iger n tkerza (akraz, tacewwalt, asemna n uzemmur,…)[20]

Aẓur n twiza di tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt yus-d zeg uzmez n Ayt ukerker di Znaga n Figig, illa wer ssinen tamyawast d twiza jar-asn, wenni tuɣa wer ɣer yelli min ɣer yecc, isneɣmis Ayt dcar, zisseni ad iska azamug s uẓru (ikerker) ittadef deg-s netta d twacunt-nnes al deg-s ɣer mmten[21].

Tuɣa din sin n terbatin d timeddukal aṭṭas, traḥent mkul ass ad agment aman, ijj n wass am lebda tus-d ijten ad tagem aman aked tmeddukelt-nnes tufa tetru. Umi tt-tesseqsa tufa twacunt-nnes texs ad teska akerkur ad deg-s mmten minzi wer ɣer-sen iqqim minzi ɣer ddren. Wer das-iɛjib ca manaya, s uya truḥ ɣer taddart-nnes teksi d imendi tuwi-as-tt-id. Tiwecca-nnes umi ẓrin ayt dcar baba-s idder bbehḍen, umi sseqsan ufin twiza tessenjem afgan zi temnawt.[22] Zi sseni issenta unegraw n twiza deg unamun amaziɣ.

Mamek tettwalan Imaziɣen ixef-nsen di tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt?

Iqqar umiy[23] : Akuc ixes ad issek tirezzifin n ujenna i yiwdan, issek taḥenjirt ad tegg tameskirt-a. Yuc-as sin n txencitin n ticcin d ijt txencit n tenɛacin. Yumer-it ad tuc txencit n tenɛacin i Imaziɣen, txencit n ticcin i Waɛraben, txencit nneḍni i Irumiyen. Taḥenjirt-nni tezgel, tuca tmenyat i Irumiyen, Imaziɣen d Waɛraben tuc asen ticcin.

 Umiy-a issutti tmanawt tadelsant di Tmurt n Imaziɣen, issiwel x kra n tdelsawin ddrent aked wayawya di Tmezɣa: Tadelsa Tamaziɣt taẓɣurant, Tadelsa taɛrabt d tdelsa tarumit;  maca tamyidirt-a iddrent aked wayawya  wer deg-s bu angiddi, tus-d deg-s tedelsa tamaziɣt di tsertut tameggarut. Manaya isfarraz belli Afgan Amaziɣ itaka s umuttel jar midden n tmettin nneḍni.

* Yina d cwayt n isental  zeg waṭṭas min x tessiwel tmiṭulujit tamaziɣt, wer d-nidar bu marra umiyen i nufa di tsugal. Di trezzut-nneɣ nufa aṭṭas n umiyen arewyen aked tinfas kkint-id zeg usged, mizni Tamezɣa ddrent deg-s tidelsawin msebḍant deg izmaz.


[1] [1]محمد أوسوس، كوكرا في الميثولوجيا الأمازيغية ضمن منشورات م.م.ث.أ، مطبعة المعارف الجديدة 2008، ص 38 و 39

[2] Lacoste-Du jardin, “Maghreb : éléments d’une mythologie kabyle”, op.cit., p.48.

[3] . Eliades, Mythes, Rèves et mystères, op.cit, p. 203

[4] P. Bourdieu, Sens pratique, Paris, Minuit, 1980, p.416

[5] Najima Ghozali Thay-Thay, Contes et légendes du Maroc, op.cit.,

[6] tasaɣult yezwaren

[7] Frobenius, Contes kabyles, op.cit., t.I, pp.94-96

محمد شفيق – لمحة عن ثلاثة وثلاثين قرنا من تاريخ الأمازيغيين ص 68 [8]

[9] F. Bentolilla – Proverbes berbères. p. 175

محمد أوسوس، دراسات في الفكر الميثي الأمازيغي، منشورات م.م.ث.أ، مطبعة المعارف الجديدة. ص.100-101 [10]

[11] tasaɣult tazwirt

[12] Tassadit Yacine, Voleurs de feu – Ed La Découverte/Awal, p 143

[13] Najima Thaythay ghozali – contes et légendes du Maroc, p. 60

[14] Leo Frobenius, contes kabyle. p: 62.

محمد أوسوس، دراسات في الفكر الميثي الأمازيغي، منشورات م.م.ث.أ، مطبعة المعارف الجديدة. ص29 [15]

[16] niɣ Zwawa : d ijjen umkan yus d deg ugemmuḍ n Dzayer

[17] Anir Maziɣ, Zeg ibawen ɣer itran. www.lerifain.fr/tussna/zeg-ibawen-ɣer-yitran-tamiṭulujit-tamaziɣt

[18] asagm d amiwan : ijj n wargaz imɣer zi ayt wricec.

  [19]محمد أوسوس، كوكرا في الميثولوجيا الأمازيغية ضمن منشورات م.م.ث.أ، مطبعة المعارف الجديدة 2008، ص 92 – 94 

الحسين رشيد، وشم الذاكرة:معالم أمازيغية في الثقافة الوطنية [20]

[21] Maarten Kossmann, Grammaire du parler berbère de Figuig (Maroc oriental), Paris/Louvain,

Peeters, 1997, p.441.

[22] O. Amara, Tanfust, Recueil de récits amazighes de Figuig, op.cit., p.29.

[23] Leo Frobenius, contes kabyle. Tome I –  p: 66-67

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