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Ttlat 28 Mayyu 2024

Tagrawla n Lqenurfel: Umi i d-weyyen iɛeskriyen tadimukraṭit ɣer upurtuɣal

Ɣer tseɛɛet n 1h30 n tuffut zeg wass n 25 abril 1974, di tmezgida timeskert n temnayt di Santarém deg upurtuɣal, ismun uqebṭan Salagueiro Maia tiseḍmiwin-nnes maḥend ad asen-yeɛlem s weqlab n leḥkam i ɣa yilin tuffut-a.

Aqlabi-nni ttuɣa yessewjed-as umussu n yedwas n iɛeskriyen (MFA). Salagueiro Maia,ttuɣa wer yessin mamec i tt ɣa yini i yergazen-nnes, uca yenna-asen-tt s tqessart:

« Din aṭṭas n tebridin i zi ssegguren ddewlat: Din tasusyalit, tacuyuɛit, takapiṭalt d tenni i ɣer-neɣ luxa. Ttwaliɣ ila ixess a nekkes manaya. A nraḥ ɣer Lisbuna maḥend a nekkes uya. “Wenni i ixsen akid-i d-yas, ad yegg fila berra, wenni wer ixisen, ad yeqqim da.”

Zi senni ruḥen s merra.

Ddewla min xef yessawal uqebṭan-nni ttuɣa-tt d ijjen tdiktaturit tekka 48 n iseggusa, tessɣreq imezdaɣ ipurtuɣaliyen di misariya d tillas. Ttuɣa purtuɣal tettɛic deg ijjen usistim ibedd x ddenf, bla tilelli n wawal, yegga bezzez x ijjen tsatalt ad temseksi deg ijjen girra tettwaxser aṭṭas zi mani, maca asistim-nni ila yugi ad tt-ikemmel.

Ttuɣa Marcelo Caetano yeṭṭef-as amkan i udiktatur António de Oliveira Salazar deg useggʷas n 1968, maca “tafsut tamarsilit” – amek i illa das-ttlaɣan xenni – yewca awal ḥuma ad ismaynu, maca wer yeggi walu zi manayenni.

Iwa ijjen tseḍma n lɛesker tufa belli d wa d akud n ubeddel.

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Itteɛqal ukulunil Carlos Maia Loureiro i ttuɣa yellan d aqebṭan : “tameslayt i iqesḥen i ttuɣa ɣer-neɣ d mamec ɣa negg a nixḍar yenni i ɣa adfen deg uṭabur, minzi urid merra idsen ttuɣa zemmren ad tt-ggen”.

Yeffeɣ uṭabur, i ɣa yiraren ijjen tilalt d tameqqrant deg weqlab n leḥkam, zi Santarém aked 160 n wergaz, 10 n ṭṭumubilat dlint, 12 n ṭṭumubinat-nniḍen, 2 n balasniyat d ijjen jeep. Ɣer 5h50 n ssbeḥ, yewweḍ uṭabur ɣar plasa n Terreiro do Paço, deg wammas n Lisbuna. Da, iraja ca n setta n sswayeɛ, ttuɣa yecc-it wemnus.

Itteɛqal Maia Loureiro i manaya : « Akud i iqesḥen qaɛ, wami i d-yewweḍ ɣer Terreiro Do Paço, ijjen wedwas n usistim x uzellif-nnes ajiniral n brigad Junqueira Reis, i yewcin wardi i ijjen ddebbaba M47 tedla maḥend ad x-aneɣ tettir. Zi senni, yegga uqebṭan Salgueiro Maia ijjen lmayna di jjib-nnes uca ikumasa iggur ɣer ddebbaba-nni maḥend ad yessiwel aked ucifur-nnes… Ḍefreɣ-t maca ar lux wer ssineɣ mayemi ggiɣ manayenni. »

Yenɛem Salgueiro Maia ca n iseggusa awern-as ila deg wakud-nni ttuɣa yewjed ad isḍuqqeẓ lmayna-nni ad yedwel d axafur, ifekker ila s manaya i zi izemmer ad yawi aqlab-nni n leḥkam. Maca deɣya yefhem belli wer yeḥwij ad yegg qaɛ anict uyenni. Acifur-nni n ddebbaba yugi ad ittir, yedwas n usistim ssersen lesnaḥ-nnsen.

Min xef d-usin ɣer Terreiro do Paço yettwagg, zi senni dderklen ɣer lmḥalla n Crami, mani ttuɣa tennuffer lḥukuma n Marcelo Caetano.

Itteɛqal ukulunil « Deg webrid, nebda nẓerr lɣaci deg izubaq. Iwdan zi merra iklussay, bdan tteggen ficta, nnayen x ṭṭumubinat, ddarraɛen-aneɣ, ttqadan-aneɣ… Ɛad manayenni aqqa-t jar tiṭṭawin-inu.»

Deg webrid-a i ikumasant tinewwacin tizeggʷaɣin n lqenurfel ad banent; xenni bdan tteggen-tent iɛeskriyen x tejwijin-nnsen, bla ma ad ssnen, yedwel manaya d tikunt n tegrawla n lqenurfel.

Qell i xemsa n sswayeɛ, yessers leḥkam fus-nnes ɣer tmurt: isellem Marcelo Caetano leḥkam i ujiniral Spínola, yeffeɣ zi lmḥalla aked iɛeskriyen n MFA. Xenni aqlab n leḥkam ttuɣa isala.

Tagrawla n tmeɛumult

Ttuɣa ssewjaden i weqlab n leḥkam ca n lechur zi mani. Xenni Marcelo Caetano ila yessawal ḥuma ad yegg ca n ibeddilen d uzzrifen, maca ijemmuɛen bdan ssawalen girra takulunyalt, ijjen girra i yekkin 13 n iseggusa bla ma ad dd-iban ca n ufessay.

“Ttuɣa din iɛeskriyen aqqa-ten aked ufessay asertan n girra-ya. Zi senni din aseqsi n lhiba n lgic apurtuɣali. Imezdaɣ ttuɣa wer dasen-yeɛjib ca lḥal x-aneɣ”, D aya i yenna ukulunil Vacso Lourenço, i yellan d ijjen i yessersen tadyulujit n weqlab n leḥkam aɛeskri.

Issefrez-d Lourenço kter manaya : “Iwdan, ila ḥessben x-aneɣ axmi aqqa-aneɣ aked usistim n wemsay i daneɣ-yessidfen di tdiktaturit d girra. Mala nrezzu a nili s lɛezz-nneɣ, ttuɣa ixess-aneɣ a neqḍeɛ aked tteswirt-nni. Aya, ttuɣa wer izemmer ad yili ɣir mala negga ca n weqlab xef leḥkam: a nekkes tadiktaturit, a naf ca n ufessay d asertan i girra, a negg tifadiwin timezwura n ijjen tdimukratit d tlelli deg upurtuɣal”.

iwdan ttreḥḥaben s iɛeskriyen

Manaya yebda aked wezgen ameqqran n imessurta iḥudriyen, ula kter iqebṭanen. “Aqqa d imessurta imelwasuten, min ɣer ttuɣa ijjen ttejriba di girra takulunyalt, i yessnen mliḥ lḥal n wafrika d yina i yeggin x yiri-nnsen ad kksen asistim, ad dd-awyen tadimukratit i tmurt“. D aya i yessfhem Francisco Ruivo, amerzu di tussniwin tinemdanin di tesdawit tamaynut n Lisbona.

“Minzi aseqsi n tsatalin ila ɣer-s lhimmet-nnes: ina ttuɣa-ten jer 30 d 40 n iseggusa, ijjen tsatalat temsebḍa s waṭṭas x ijiniralen imeqqranen n lgic, inni ttuɣa-ten nnumɣaren, d imeḥḍayen kter.”.

Dewlen imsebḍiten-a banen deg wass n 14 mars 1974, deg ijjen ficta i yettwaggen i arrayes n lḥukuma Marcelo Caetano, ḥeḍren dag-s ijiniralen n tlata n tseḍwin.

“Deg wass-nni i yettwassnen s ‘brigad n arrumatizem’ nnan dag-s ijiniralen belli nitni aqqa ttbeddan aked arrayes n lḥukuma.” D aya i d-yenna Luís Nuno Rodrigues.

Ijiniralen i wer d-yeḥḍiren ttuɣa-ten d Francisco da Costa d Gomes António de Spínola, awern-as kksen-asen amkan-nnsen. Tnayen n yergazen d nitni i ɣa yiraren tilalt tamezwarut deg uplanu n tegrawla n Abril.

Girra takulunyalt

Walli ca min imsaren d ayenni i das-nnan ijiniralen i Caetano. Di tidett, lgic ttuɣa yegga iḍaren-nnes di tsertit ar ifadden. Ufuɣ n MFA maci ɣir ḥuma ad ggen ijjen weqlab x leḥkam, maca ad ggen ijjen uprugram d asertan.

Tessefru manyaa Irene Flunser Pimentel i yellan d tamussnawt n umezruy: “ttuɣa-t d ijjen uprugram i ɣa yekksen asistim aqdim d merra timersal-nnes, a nbedd x “tlata n n tneqqiḍin” : Tadimukratit, a nekkes takulunyalt, a negg tgumi.

Yerni yenna Luís Nuno Rodrigues, aprufisur n umezruy di ISCTE : “Maca di ladas, ila xsen ad ggen istayen a x-asen ibedd ijjen wegraw i ɣa yessufɣen ɣer ijjen ddustur n tmurt, mamec i ɣa yili wenɛam s ufessay asertan i girrat tikulunyalin

Yemsar usesrten n lɛesker ipurtuɣalyen di girra-nni ttuɣa tteggen ɣer berra i tmurt-nnsen. “Yus-d ijjen wakud mani iḥudriyen i ixsen ad kemmlen tɣuri-nnsen taɛeskrit dewlen udrusen aṭṭas, ttuɣa azgen ameqqran-nnsen ggin x-asen bezzez ḥuma ad raḥen ɣer wafrika. “Ttuɣa-ten d iḥudriyen ugmen-d zi May 68, ggin tasertit di tesdawiyin, weyyen akid-sen idlisen ɣer girra, iɣennijen n uɣewweɣ am wenni n Zeca Afonso d José Mario Branco [tnayen n iɣennijen min xef issers ufus asistim] uca bdan zuzzaran ixarrisen-nnsen x iɛeskriyen-nniḍen”. I yenna umussnaw-a n umezruy.

“Umi irgazen-a fekkren deg ijjen weqlab x leḥkam, d ijjen uprugram, aya maḥend ad qelɛen tadikttaurit zeg iẓuran-ines, ad sdimukraṭin tamurt, ad bedden kuntra i tkulunyalt, ad wcen tazmert i imeddanen s ijjen tebridt d tadimukraṭit.”

Aya di girra takulunyalt mani aṭṭas n iɛeskriyen dewlen faqqen s marka n umseksi i ttuɣa yellan di tmura-nni, ssiggʷjen ixef-nnsen x prupaɣanda i di yesseɣreq asistim tamurt.”

Tɛawen-aneɣ girra ḥuma a nerẓem tiṭṭawin-nnem x usderɣel i tettegg lḥukuma, x lḥal n tdiktaturit da, nufa belli iɛadawen-nneɣ ɣer-sen lḥeqq akid-neɣ mseksin. D nitni min ɣer yella lḥeqq, yenn yemmuten ḥuma ad awḍen ɣer tlelli-nnsen. Neccin i ttuɣa yexḍan.” D aya i yessefham ukulnil Vasco Lourenço.

“Nec ruḥeɣ ad wteɣ acbar x ijjen tmurt, tteḥsabeɣ-tt inu. Maca ɣer umeggaru ufiɣ belli neccin nexser deg uswir asertan, nedwel nettegg girra ḥuma a negg girra waha, xenni asistim issexdem lgic ḥuma ad yaweḍ ɣer ca waha”. Yerna yenna Kulunil Maia Loureiro

Zeg weqlab n leḥkam ɣer tegrawla

Di tseɛɛatin timezwura n weqlab n leḥkam, asiweḍ amezwaru i yegga MFA, yetter zzag-s zeg “inamuren, ad qqimen di tudrin-nnsen”. Maca wami slin i usiweḍ-a, ggin s kuntra-nnes. Ffɣen-d merra ɣer berra ḥuma ad ceḍḥen. Sɣuyyen x imeqqranen n usistim aqdim, sellmen x iɛeskriyen, munen-d mlin-d abeddi-nnsen s tcarrifin d twasit-nnsen tameqqrant.

Icten zzag-sen ttuɣa-t d Aurora Rodrigez, d icten ila yellan kuntra i usistim, ttuɣa-tt di tmeddit-nni di lmeṭbaɛa n Movimento Reorganizativo do Partido do do Proletariado (MRPP) maḥend ad teḍbeɛ ca n isiwaḍ.

I waṭṭas n iseggusa, ttuɣa tettemseksi kuntra i tdiktaturit. Ila ṭṭfen-tt, weddben-tt, luxa “asistim isala, wer tettɣimi ca tennufer ɛad”. Teṭṭef lkar amezwaru i yettawin ɣer Lisbuna, Wami tiweḍ ɣer Terreiro do Paço “ila din ahimun n yewdan di berra, iɛejb-asen lḥal, ttuɣa wer din wi izemmren a ten-issidef ɣer tudrin-nnsen”.

Teḍfer Aurora iwdan-a, teẓra mamec lḥukuma tessers ifassen-nnes. “Merra iwdan-a… Ila neṭṭaw s lefraḥet, minzi tafacit tsala safi.” “ttuɣa nsala akid-sen.”

Wami i d-ffɣen anict uyenni n yewdan, aya iqqar ila midden ila rezzun min negga amenni, manayenni iɛawen-aneɣ bezzaf”. Ismektay-d ukulunil Vasco Lourenço.

Yettɛawad ukulunil Maia Loureiro: “Tteɛqaleɣ deg wammas n lɣaci, ijjen temɣart tennumɣar, tudes-d ɣer-i, s ijjen ssewt itterjiji, tenna-ayi-d ‘Ɛafak aṭṭas x min teggim ammu, minzi ayyaw-inu, wer yeqqim ad iraḥ ɣer girra.’ Xenni, teqqim dayi”.

iwdan ffɣen ɣer berra, wer dwilen ɣer tudrin-nnsen

Merra manaya ittmerany ɣer wami ila wer din bu ddenf. “ttuɣa iɛeksriyen jjin iwdan ad cerken deg unhezzi, wer dasen-ggin walu”. I yenna Lourenço.

Aqqa d acrak-a n yewdan i yerrin min yebdan d aqlab n leḥkam ɣer tegrawla. “zeg wass amezwaru, iwdan swizan aked iɛeskriyen. Zi senni, ttuɣa din timeskanin d tigdudanin mani mma. Kul ass, ila din ijjen tmeskant. Ccɣel d ca n ijemmuɛen d igdudanen i yejjin aparasyu-ya ad yili d aradikal, errin-tt d tagrawla.” D aya i teqqar tamerzut deg umezruy Flunser Pimentel.

Ttuɣa-t d akud n PREC (akud n tegrawla isiɣan). Snamuren lbankawat d ssenɛet i ideqlen. Iwdan menɛen tudrin, fabrikat d tmura i yexwan. Smeɣren zi tfellaḥt.

“Kumasan inamuren a ɣer-sen ilin tiseqqar: tasɣart di tikkest x lxedmet, tilelli n wawal, tilelli n tmesmunin” D wa d afessay n Francisco Ruivo.

Ihudditen x tdimukratit

Wami Marcelo Caetano yewca tazmert i ujiniral António Spínola. Netta d Costa Gomes, ixḍaren-ten zɣer MFA maḥend ad ssuguren aseqqim anamur n usenjem, i yeṭṭfen tazmert di tmurt awerni i weqlab n leḥkam aɛeskri. Ixḍaren Costa Gomez qbel i Spínola, maca timeslayin beddlent deg wass n 25 abril.

“D Marceli Caetano s ixef-nnes i d-yennan ila yewjed ad yewwec tazmert i Spínola s uyenni i d-iban netta d amɣar n useqqim anamur n usenjem idwel d arrayes n arripublika tiwecca-nnes”. I yeqqar Luís Nuno Rodrigues.

Timeqqanin jar António de Spínola d MFA wer tent-ttuɣi ca mliḥ lebda, ula kter di min iqqnen ɣer useqsi akulunyal. Spínola yettwala belli ixess ad din yili ijjen ufessay d asertan i girra, maci tikkest n tkulunyalt. Twarrit-nnes x umseksi, tettwafser deg udlis n “Purtuɣal d yimal”, di febrayer n 1974, yenna belli netta aqqa-t akked ijjen tfidiralit dag-s aṭṭas n tmura.

“Ila wer ixes ca Spínola ad yesnufsel i merra inekraf isertanen, wer ixes ca ɛawed ad isbedd lbulis asertan, yenna belli netta ixess-as ad isiɣi maḥend ippudar ad tili ca n girra di tkuluniyin. Ḥaca yegga x uzellif-nnes ijjen wemɣar d jjdid waha”. D aya i tessefru Flunser Pimentel.

Ɣir iwweḍ ad yili d arrayes, igga tizemmar-nnes maḥend ad yesmun tazmert deg ufus-nnes, ixes ad yekkes MFA. “tameqqant i din jer-asen tebna x ḥadur. Ila ixes Spínola ad yessiggʷej MFA zi tudert tasertant, ad yejj istayen ad ilin menbeɛd ɣer ijjen wakud-nniḍen”. Manaya i d-yenna Francisco Ruivo.

“Maca MFA isfekker Spínola belli qa din ijjen prugram ixess-as a t-yeḍfer, di min iqqnen ɣer usdemkreṭ n tmura, yenna-as ɛawed aqqa MFA wer itteffeɣ ca zeg uparasyu-ya. Xenni, Spínola ila bezzez x-as ad yenɛem s manaya, uca s ijjen usḥissef d ameqqran, yewca tanimant i tkuluniyin tipurtuɣalyin.”

Maca ajiniral ila ixes ad yemneɛ tazmert i tnayen n twalatin: Deg wass n 28 cutembir 1974 – mani i d-ilaɣa ɣer “wezgen ameqqran n wegdud i yesseɣḍen” ḥuma ad kid-s bedden deg ijjen tmeskant, d 11 mars 1975 wami yegga tizemmar ḥuma ad yeqleb leḥkam maca deɣya deɣya sbedden-tt. Zi senni, yerwel Spínola ɣer Spaniya, awern-as ɣer Brazil.

Timejriwin n 11 mars weyyent ḥuma ad ittwagg useqqim n tegrawla (CR). Issefru Francisco Ruivo ila “d ta d tabridt maḥend ad yili MFA d adusturi, ittsemma anhezzi wer itteffeɣ ca x wudem-nnes agrawli i ɣa yeggen amutti adimukraṭ”.

Awerni merra imxumbal, Deg wass n 25 abril 1975, ttwaggen istayen ilelliyen di twalat tamezwarut maḥend ad fernen aberlaman, s wecrak n 91,7% n ipurtuɣaliyen min ɣer yella kter zi 18 n useggʷas.

Di cher-nni s ixef-nnes, yufa CR ijjen wemstfaq aked imulliten isertanen, neɛmen zzag-s i xemsa n iseggusa i yellan d akud n umutti adimukraṭ. Zi senni, yeggur ad yennefsi deg useggʷas n 1982.

Deg useggʷas-a, ad iẓer purtuɣal ahuddi ameggaru x tdimukraṭit. Deg wass n 25 nufember, di ssbeḥ zik, ca n iɛeskriyen menɛen setta n lmḥallat. Da MFA yebḍa x tanyen n wafriwen n iẓelmaḍen, ijjen wafriw aqqa-t deg wammas, wenniḍen ttlaɣan-as gruppu n tesɛa.

“Iẓelmaḍen imelwasuten ufin belli min ggin amenni ittwaḥsab d ijjen weqlab x leḥkam i yeggin iẓelmaḍen iradikaliyen”. Gruppu n tesɛa ila yella x uzellif-nnes Vasco Lourenço d Ramalho Eanes, maca wtin x-as ẓeyyar.

Timejra-ya d ta d tameggarut n uparasyu agrawli apurtuɣali.

Agdud d iɛeskriyen

“Tteɛqaleɣ belli wami ila ffɣeɣ ɣer berra, yerḍeɣ arruḍ n uqebṭan, merra idsen ila ttsellamen xafi. Qbel, ttuɣa nettsedḥa zeg warruḍ-nneɣ aɛeskri.” I yenna Lourenço.

“Deg wakud n PREC, tetteɛqal Irène Pimentel, iwdan ila sxeddamen lgic di merra tiɣawsiwin-nnsen. “Mala ɣer-sen amxumbel, ad raḥen ɣer lgic, uridd ɣer lbulis.”

Maca asɣun-nni ibda itteḍɛif aked iseggusa, maca ijjen tɣuri tban-d deg useggʷas n 2021 i yegga usinag n wemzaɣ anamur d tesdawit n Lisbuna, mmlint-id ila ipurtuɣaliyen ɛad ttɛemmaden x lɛesker.

Kter zi 73% n yewdan min ked ssiwlen nnan-d belli ɛad ttiqqan di lɛesker, maca 4% waha i wer yettiqin ca qaɛɛa.

Tebda ttiqet-a di 25 abril 1974, wami iɛeskriyen hwan ɣer berra, aked imezdaɣ maḥend ad rren aqlab n leḥkam ɣer ijjen tegrawla n lqenurfel.

Tala: BBC

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