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Jjemɛa 12 Yulyu 2024

Min teɛna tḥajit n temɣart tamezwarut i d-iwwin dduktura?

Di 25 yunyu zeg useggʷas n 1678 tewwi-d taṭalyant Elena Cornaro dduktura-nnes di tfilusuft, s uya, tteḥsaben x-as d tamɣart tamezwarut i yewwḍen tfesna-ya tamassant tameqqrant deg umezruy.

Teqqar Encyclopædia Britannica ila Elena Cornaro tlul di 5 yunyu deg useggʷas n 1646 di Venise deg Uṭalyan, temmut di 26 yulyu zeg useggʷas n 1684 di Padova deg Uṭalyan. Ttuɣa-tt d tamassant, d tamɣart tamezwarut i d-iwwin ca n ddiplum zi tesdawit.

Mani tegma d mani telmed?

Ttuɣa Elena d taḥenjirt tis tlata n Giovanni Battista Cornaro Piscopia, ijjen zeg inublen, yemma-as Zanetta Boni ila tella d tafellaḥt, wami i tt-turu zi Giovanni, ttuɣa ɛad wer t-temlic, awern-as tejj-d rebɛa n tarwa-nnes nniḍen awerni i Elena.

Waxxa Elena, urewn-tt-id lwalidin-nnes qbel ma ad melken, maca baba-s Giovanni Battista inɛem zzag-s, iɛawen-itt aṭṭas. Ttuɣa ittxes aṭṭas tasekla d tmessna, ila wer itteggʷid ad yegg ca n tmeslayin i ttuɣa wer nnumen iwdan xenni am uselmed n yelli-s.

Ila ɣer-s ɣer Elea sebɛa n iseggusa, issiɣ-as ameddukel n baba-s, ababat Giovanni Fabris, fus-nnes maḥend ad tebda ad telmed tagrikt d tlatinit. Zi senni, tebda tettessen tafransist, taspanyut, taɛibrit d teɛrabt bla iles n yemma-s taṭalyant.

Teɣra Elea ɣer ca n iselmaden timessna ameknaw lmaṭ, tastrunumit d imassen n tmuzikt am tagiṭart, lkaman, bla tira-nnes deg usefru d uɣennej. Maca ttuɣa tettxes aṭṭas tafilusuft d taṭiyulujit.

Elena ttuɣa-t d takatulikt nican, tugi ad temlek. Ttuɣa texs ad tadef ɣer tseḍma n munxat tibinidiktiyin, maca baba-s yugi-as.

Umi ila ɣer-s 18 n iseggusa di lɛumur-nnes, tettwazemmem di llista n inublen zegga i x-as iɣastar baba-s ca n 100 alef n ddukat maḥend ad tissili nettat d aytma-s ɣer uswir n iristukraṭiyen.

Deg useggʷas-nnes wis 19, tettwassen ila nettat d tamɣart i yeɣrin aṭṭas deg Uṭalyan, iwdan ila ttasen-d zi tmurt amen tekmel maḥend ad tt-ẓren deg yeɣrem n Cornaro di Venise.

Di 1669, testurjem adlis n “amsawal aked lmasiḥ” n ubabat Giovanni Laspergio zi tespanyut ɣer teṭlyant, asuɣel-a i tegga-as-t d awardi i Gianne Paulo Oliva, taɛcirt-nnes. Yeffeɣ-d udlis-a di xemsa n tunɣilin di tegduda n Venise zeg useggʷas n 1669 ar 1672.

Tettwassen deg uṭalyan amen yekmel, laɣan-d x-as ad tadef ɣer tmesmunin timassanin. Zeg useggʷas n 1670 tedwel d tanessixeft n tmesmunt takadimit n Venise i wafra.

Tarezzut n dduktura-nnes

Deg useggʷas n 1672 isekk-itt baba-s ɣer tesdawit n Padova, tettwaḥsab d tasdawit taqdimt tis tlata deg Uṭalyan, maḥend ad dag-s tsala tɣuri-nnes, yesɣa-s ijjen taddart ṭṭerf i tesdawit ḥuma ad tɣer taṭyulujit.

Ttuɣa Cornaro wer txes ad taweḍ ɣer tfesna n dduktura zi tesdawit n Padova, maca ila txes ad tkemmel tɣuri-nnes waha, xelli amenni, Giovanni ila irezzu amaḍal ad yessen anict n tmessna i teɛlem yelli-s.

Ila tehlek aṭṭas qbel ma ad tadef ɣer tesdawit n Padova, maca lehlak iraḥ zegga i tebda tiɣri-nnes. Tura i baba-s zi Padova, zegga i tudef ɣer tesdawit: “aked imezran i kessiɣ di tɣuri-inu, leɛwin asebḥan, ttahellu zeg iḍbiben, ttaciɣ belli luxa qesḥeɣ aṭṭas, ssitimeɣ ad saliɣ tiɣri-inu deg yimal”.

Zegga i tebda tḥeṭṭer di tesdawit, temmelqa aked iwdan zeg uruppa amen tekmel, tebda deg yemsawalen-nnes aked imussnawen imeqqranen n xenni.

Imsawalen-nni dewlen ttwassnen s waṭṭas deg Uṭalyan, maca ula deg uruppa amen tekmel.

Awerni umi i tt-iɛren baba-s, tetter Elena maḥend ad teṭṭef dduktuta di teṭyulujit zi tesdawit n Padova. Maca, imḍebbren n teglizt takatulikt ila ugin ad wcen dduktura n teṭyulujit i ca n temɣart, minzi taglizt illa tettwala ila tamɣart wer das-iliq ca ad teṭṭef ddiplum n Ph.D di teṭyulujit.

Ar beddu n lqern wis 21, ttuɣa taglizt tettagi ad tessuded tiwetmin maḥend ad ilint d tikehhanin, waxxa maci d manaya i illa texs Cornaro, maca taglizt tuca ila mala tewca-as tafesna-ya, ataf wer das-iqqim walu ɣer usuded.

Waxxa amenni taglizt tewca-as ttesriḥ maḥend ad tetter dduktura di tfilusuft maca maci di teṭyulujit.

Ttuɣa xsen ad as-ggen ijjen yirim i Cornaro maḥend ad teṭṭef tafesna n dduktura di tfilusuft deg ijjen tdala di tesdawit n Padova. Maca, umi ila din ḥḍaren aṭṭas n yewdan, zzag-sen iselmaden, imeḥḍaren d igmamen n useqqim n iwessura d inewjiwen zi tesdawiyin zeg Uṭalyan merra, zi senni smuttyen-t ɣer tkadiralt n massa taɛezrit di Padova.

Deg useggʷas n 1678, yettwagg irim-nnes, tessiwel tiseɛɛet amen tekmel s yiles alatini aklassiki, d nettat temmal-d ca n imursuten zi lexdayem n Aristot.

Slin-as s waṭṭas n taynit, tesstebheḍ iwdan s temrarutin-nnes iqaden, xenni ufin belli timessna-nnes tameqqrant tujer dduktura di tfilusuft i tewwi d nettat wami ila ɣer-s 32 n useggʷas.

Ttuɣa-tt d tamɣart tamezwarut deg umaḍal i yewwin tafesna n dduktura. Aked tafesna n dduktura, teksi txatemt n weḍbib, abernus n uselmad, d uzemmaraz n umedyaz.

Di sebɛa n iseggusa-nnes imeggura

Ttuɣa Cornaro d tagmamt deg waṭṭas n tkadimiyin deg Uruppa amen tekmel; usin-d ɣer-s imussnawen zeg umaḍal merra, teḥḍa isqaditen aked ikadimiyen deg Uṭalyan d berra-nnes. Ila tessawal x teṭyulujit d tmuzikt.

Deg udlis-nnes “Ayda n Hypathia”, teydar-d Margret Aleck ila Cornaro tedwel d taprufisurt n lmaṭ di tesdawit n Padova aseggʷas n 1678. Di sebɛa n iseggusa imeggura, teɛqeb Elena txeddem imeẓlaḍ d igellinen, mamec tettɛawan deg uselmed aṭṭas.

Ttuɣa seḥḥet-nnes tehrura qbala, lxir i ttuɣa tettegg d lxedmet-nnes di tiɣri yejja tizemmar-nnes ad nqaḍant.

Temmut Elena x 38 n iseggusa di buḥbel-nnes deg useggʷas n 1684, ad yili d lehlak n tarut i tt-issiḍnen. Iwdan di Venise, Padova d Ruma xeyyqen aṭṭas.

Ttuɣa asitem-nnes ameggaru ad temḍel di teglizt n Santa Giustina di Padova deg Uṭalyan.

Deg useggʷas n 1685, tessufeɣ-d tasdawit n Padova ijjen tmidalit d asemɣer i tmeḥḍart-nnes tameqqrant. Ass-a din ijjen tsefrist s errxam i Elena Cornaro di tesdawit n Padova tameqqrant deg Uṭalyan. Tasefrist-a ttuɣa tewc-itt Caterina Dolphin i tesdawit-a deg useggʷas n 1773.

Tura Cornaro aṭṭas n wartiklen d tsersiwin x tɣawsiwin tidinyin d tfilusufiyin, zzag-sen inawen ikadimiyen d isuɣal. Yefser Benedetto Pacini utubiyugrafi-nnes d lexdayem i tura munen s tutlayt taṭalyant d tlatinit deg useggʷas n 1688 di Parma deg Uṭalyan. Ar ass-a, ɛad kessin imerzuten s waṭṭas zi Elena tira-nnes.

Deg useggʷas n 1895, terẓem Mathaleda Pinsent i yellan d tanessixeft n munxat tibindiktiyin di Ruma amḍel-nnes, ɛawden meḍlen-tt deg ijjen ttabut d jjdid, ssersen dag-s ijjen telwiḥt issemɣer zi tmegga-nnes, yettɛawad tḥajit n tudert-nnes.

Min tegga iqqim amenni ar mani i d-tusa ijjen temɣart-nniḍen umi qqaren Laura Bassi (1778-1711) i d-yeffɣen ula d nettat zi tesdawit, d ijjen temɣart d tanublit di Bologne, tiwwi Ph.D nnes ula d nettat deg useggʷas n 1732, tiss tlata ila tella n Maria Pellegrina Amoretti, i d-iwwin dduktura-nnes deg izerfan zi tesdawit n Pavie di 25 yunyu deg useggʷas n 1777.

Deg useggʷas n 2019, issemɣer Google s wass n tlalit-nnes wis 373.

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