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Ttlat 28 Mayyu 2024

Milan Kundera: wenn i das-issnen i umelleɣ x umaḍal

Di 2023, i di yemmut Milan Kundera x 94 n iseggusa di Paris, ijjen zeg yesmawen imeqqranen n tsekla tawruppawit deg iseggusa imeggura.

“Lefsaset n yili i wer iḥemmel ḥedd” i d-yeffɣen aseggʷas n 1984, nettat d lxedmet tameqqrant n umari-ya Atciki. Adlis-a, ɛad wer itturjem ɣer Tmaziɣt.

Tenna Anna Mrázová, tamessiwelt s yisem n tsedlist n Milan Kundera di temdint n Brno di tegduda n Tcik, ila Milan yemmut zegga yudef deg ijjen umseksi d ameqqran aked lehlak-nnes.

Kundera, ila yella zeg izumal n tsekla tatcikit, maca akritiki-nnes i usistim aceyyuɛi di tcikusluvakiya, yejja-t ad yerwel ɣer Fransa deg useggʷas n 1975.

Ttexsen aṭṭas n yewdan zeg wegdud n tsekla tatcikit d imeɣra deg umaḍal ungalen n Kundera, minzi tmamekt-nnes tessur dag-s jar tummedyezt d ugernez x merra min ittemsaren deg yiger asertan d tudert takuyast.

Ilul Kundera deg useggʷas n 1929 i ijjen twacunt d tatcikit, ttuɣa-t zi tufrint n tẓuri d wamun di tmurt-nnes. Baba-s ila yessɣara Kundera x uselmed d ustrinar n musika x ijjen uswir i yuɛlan.

Issɣer Kundera di Prague, yedwel issawal din x tsekla tamaḍlant. Deg umezwaru illa yella d ameɣnas n umulli aceyyuɛi.

Maca deɣya deɣya tira-nnes ad as-ggent imuxmubal d isertanen, i ttuɣa yeffɣen x tatult taseklant ila yellan deg wakud-nni; ungal-nnes “amelleɣ” (d ijjen wungal i ittmelliɣen, yettic ijjen kumidya d taberkant, yettwafser deg useggʷas n 1967) d netta i das-d-iwwin ageddul x tira-nnes di Tcikusluvakiya.

Deg useggʷas n 1970, ggin x-as bezzez ḥma ad yeffeɣ zeg umulli zegga i t-ttuɣa akked tefsut n Prague, i ttuɣa yellan d ijjen wakud mani teẓra Tcikusluvakiya ijjen uslillet d asertan, qbel ma ad x-as adfen isuviyatiyen deg useggʷas n 1968.

X uyenni ɛawed ssufɣen-t zi lxedmet-nnes zi tesdawit, kksen ungalen-nnes zi tsedlisin, gedlen x uzenzi-nnsen ar mani tuḍa lḥukuma tacuyuɛit deg useggʷas n 1989.

Yexdem umungal-a atciki deg ijjen tseḍma n Jazz, mani ila ittsuḍ di lbuq, qbel ma ad yetleɛ ɣer Fransa deg useggʷas n 1975 aked temɣart-nnes Vera; mani zedɣen deg umezwaru di temdint n Rennes zi senni muttyen ɣer Paris.

temmewc-as taɣlant tafransist deg useggʷas n 1981 awerni ɛamayen zegga i das-kksen taɣlant-nnes tatcikit, zi senni i yebda ad yari s tefransist.

Deɣya deɣya yettwassen Kundera di Fransa zegga i fesren ungal-nnes “Lefsaset n yili i wer iḥemmel ḥedd” i yessawalen x rebɛa n inaẓuren d itcikiyen d ijjen weqzin, x webrid-nnsen iwca ijjen ufuṭu d ameẓẓyan x tudert tadelsant di tmurt-nnes ula kter deg wakud aquḍaḍ n weɛdal (tafsut n Prague) i yesalan s wadaf n ttankat tisuvyatiyin di tmaẓunt tatcikit.

deg useggʷas n 1987, immutti wungal-nnes ɣer umaḍal n sini, yettwagg ijjen ufilem yebna x temsarin n wungal-nnes, tirar dag-s Juliette Binoche d Daniel Day-Lewis. Maca Kundera wer das-yeɛjib ufilem-nni, minzi iḥeseb axmi amaḍal atrar wer yeqbil ungal-nnes.

Juliette Binoche d Daniel Day-Lewis

Yenna i umeddukel-nnes Philip Ruth deg ujurnal n New York Times, xenni: “Ittban-ayi-d ila yewdan deg umaḍal amen yekmel tteḥkamen x ijjen lḥajet bla ma ad tt-fehmen, rezzun tamrarut bla ma ad ssersen aseqsi.”

Yerna yenna: “S uya, imesli n wungal wer das-tteslin ɛlaḥal deg wammas n ẓẓga n iselkan n yewdan (ismeɛna-d x ixarrisen n idyulujiyen i yeddaḥan s tussna taslkant)

Maca, ungal-a nnes yemmenz s waṭṭas zegga i t-fesren di tmurt-nnes deg useggʷas n 2006.

Ma lxedmet-nnes “adlis n taḍsa d tattut” i yettwafsren deg useggʷas n 1979, yeẓda-t dag-s Kundera s sebɛa n ifilan, yewwi iferdas-nnes ɣer targa n tilawt tamegzunt. Issufeɣ deg useggʷas n 1988, ungal-nnes “tummeɣlelt” i yettwaḥsaben d ijjen zeg ungalen-nnes i yettwassnen.

Deg useggʷas n 1985 yewwi tasemɣurt n urcalim – d ijjen tsemɣurt i ittmewcan i imariten i yettarin x tlelli n bnadem deg wamun.

Xelli isem-nnes ittwayder-d s waṭṭas di lista n inni i ɣa awin tasemɣurt n Nobel, maca ɛememrs ma yewwi tasemɣurt-a.

Wer yewwiḍ ad dd-yerr taɣlant-nnes tatcikit ar mani d aseggʷas n 2019 mani awzir amezwaru Andrej Babiš yeɣtes ad asen-yerr taɣlant i Kundera d temɣart-nnes zegga i dasen-tt-kksen ca n rebɛin n iseggusa zi mani.

Aṭṭas n midden ila ttraḥen ṭappi x tira n Milan, maca xelli amenni, din iwdan ɛawed i t-ikritikan x mamec yura x temɣart.

Din ixarrisen-nniḍen x ungal-nnes ameggaru, i d-yeffɣen deg useggʷas n 2014, s uzwel n “afistival n uberkennis” i yettwafsren s tutlayt taṭalyant deg umezwaru, nnan x-as ca zzag-sen ila netta d amseksi jar umelli d usitem.

Tala : BBC News

Yura-t : Ruth Comerford

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