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Lḥed 23 Yunyu 2024

Mayemmi tiddi n walli-nneɣ temẓi x tenni n Inyundirtaliyen?

Zi lebda ila nettɣil ila “alli-nneɣ ameqqran” d wenni i daneɣ-issemsebḍan x iklusay-nniḍen n zzwayel. Wami nezmer a nxarres, ad d-nsaqar; d aya i daneɣ-jjin a negg taẓuri, a naf tajerrart niɣ a nehwa x tziri.

S tidett, mala nesmqudda alli-nneɣ aked zzwayel-nniḍen min ked nemqudda di tiddi, a naf wenni nneɣ d ameqqran. Tiddi n walli n bnadem temmerni rebɛa n twalatin di setta melyun n iseggusa i yeɛdan, zeg wami yemsebḍa uklasi-nneɣ aked jjeddi-tneɣ icerken aked icampanziyen.

Maca, mmalent-id ca n tɣuriwin i d-ibanent amenɛad belli timeslayin raḥent s mecceqleb aked Homo sapiens. Deg uklasi-nneɣ, tiddi tamjahdit n walli-nneɣ tenqes di 100 000 n iseggusa i yeɛdan.

Deg ijjen tɣuri i yettwaggen deg useggʷas n 2023, yeḍfar Ian Tattersall, i yellan d apaliyuntrupulug d ameḥḍay ameqqran n usalay amarikan n umezruy agman n New York, aksay n yeqcucen iqdimen n yewdan aked lweqt. Aya yebda aked iklussay i yettwassnen, iqedmen, isala aked iwdan n yiḍa.

Yufa aṭewwer n walli yemsar s tazzla, maca ɣer mkul aklasi n bnadem weḥḥdes deg imukan msebḍan am Asiya, Uruppa d Wafrika. Zeg iklusay umi iṭewwer walli aked wakud zzag-sen Australopithecus afarensis, Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis d Homo neanderthalensis.

Zeg wami i d-yusa bnadem n yiḍa, tbeddel tiddi n walli. Iqcucen n yergazen d temɣarin n yiḍa meẓyen s 12,1% x inni Homo Sapiens i yiɛicen deg umeggaru n wakud n wejris.

Isseplika Tattersall manaya mliḥ : “ɣer-neɣ ca n yeqcucen s ijjen furma tegga ca n ddegg, s uya yewdan imezwura ihwen a ten-nakez, ttuɣa ɣer-sen ijjen walli d ameqqran qbala”.

tbeddel tiddi n walli

Min yufa amenni Tatersall, ila izwaren ɣer-s inniḍen. Deg useggʷas n 1934, ijjen ameknaw Gerhardt Von Bonin, i yellan d amussnaw d Aliman iḍfaren i tesdawit n Chicago deg Illinois, yura : “Din ijjen weskan iban n ijjen wenqas [n walli n bnadem] mala walu deg Uruppa di 10 000 iseggusa i yeɛdan ar 20 000 n iseggusa zi mani”.

Maca mamec i ɣa nessplika anqas-a wa?

Yessumer Tattersall ila anqas n tiddi n walli yebda ca n 100 000 n useggʷas zi mani, aya yus-d aked wakud mani iwdan ɛdan ɣer ijjen marka n uxarres d amakaz, wenn umi iqqar netta “amsurruf s uzamul aked tumlayt“, mani nebda nettxarres s ijjen tebridt d tawengimt, nfehhem mliḥ min daneɣ-d-yunuḍen.

Iqqar Tattersall ila “deg wakud-nni mani bdan iwdan ttsaqaren-d lexdayem n ufus, niɣ messlen x yeẓra ca n ifuṭuten s ijiyumitriyen ɣer-sen lmeɛna”.

Yettwala Tattersall belli wami i d-tban tutlayt d nettat ibeddlen di tebridt n uxarres. Manaya i yewwin ɣer ijjen uɛawed n usettef n yebriden iɛasabiyen n walli s ijjen tebridt iqaden di min iqqnen ɣer umitabulik, s uyenni bdan iwdan sxeddamen agmam-a mliḥ.

S ijjen wawal-nneḍni, mala ɣer-neɣ ijjen walli d ameẓẓyan, uca nesxeddam-it mliḥ ḥsen zi mala ɣer-neɣ ijjen walli yemɣer maca wer nessin mamec i ɣa negg a t-nessexdem.

Isseplika Tattersall manaya : “Ittawi-ayi-d Rebbi ila lejdud-nneɣ ttuɣa ttemsurrufen aked tumlayin s ijjen jjehd d amsari, xenni tiɣist-nnsen temmerni aked tiddi n walli i immernin. Ɛawed, cḥal ma alli yemɣer, cḥal mma netteẓẓeg-d zzag-s lfaydet”.

mala ɣer-neɣ ijjen walli d ameẓẓyan, uca nesxeddam-it mliḥ ḥsen zi mala ɣer-neɣ ijjen walli yemɣer maca wer nessin mamec i ɣa negg a t-nessexdem.

“Maca tabridt-nneɣ n uxarres temsebḍa. Amḍal i daneɣ-d-yunuḍen netterra-t d amawal, d izumal i nyerru maḥend a nessers iseqsan ameknaw ‘i mala…?'”.

“Ddegg-a n uxarres i yebnan xef izumal yeḥwaj aṭṭas n tuqqniwin i yemxumblen deg walli-nneɣ kter zi qbel. Ttwaliɣ ila tuqqniwin-a immerniyen errint alli ad yexdem s ijjen tebridt iqaden zeg uɣezdis n yijirni-nnes”.

Aṭṭas n ipaliyuntulugen ttwalan belli arcifen i yellan deg ixsan mmalen-d belli alli yalleh amenɛad i ikumasa ad ikmummec, maci amek yeqqar Tattersall, manaya ixes ad yini ila abeddel wer iqqin ca ɣer ubani n tutlayt. Ɛawed ixess a ncekk ila abani n tutlayt itteɛqab ɣer 100 000 n useggʷas.

Yenna Jeff Morgan Stibel ameqqran n usalay n umezruy agman di Kalifuniya : “tɛejb-ayi taṭiyurit-a, ttwaliɣ-t tessbeḥ aṭṭas”.

“Maca qaɛ wer neẓri ca n data i d-immalen belli yemsar ijjen wenqas ca n 100 000 n useggʷas zi mani uca wer yewwi ca ad yeqleb tiddi n walli-nni niɣ ad tedwel tettmernay. Ttuɣa din ijjen wenqas xenni. Maca awern-as, yebda alli iggam, s uya tumlayin-nneɣ wer ttriḥent ca lebda aked turda-ya”.

Yettwala Stibel belli abeddel n uklima, urid tutlayt, i izemmren ad isseplika anqas n tiddi n walli-nneɣ.

deg ijjen tɣuri i yettwafsaren deg useggʷas n 2023, issefsi ca n yeqcucen n 298 n Homo Sapiens di 50 000 n iseggusa i yeɛdan. Yufa ila tiddi n walli n bnadem tenqes di 17 000 n iseggusa i yeɛdan, zeg umeggaru n wakud n wejris.

Wami ibda ifitcar tumlayin n uklima, yufa belli anqas n tiddi n walli iqqen ɣer wami yebda aklima ittiḥma.

“D aya i nufa, melmi mma aklima ittiḥma, cḥal mma tiddi n walli n bnadem tmeẓẓi, cḥal ma aklima yesmeḍ, cḥal mma ittemɣir”. I d-yenna Stibel.

Alliten imeẓẓyanen ttuɣa zemmren ad jjen ayt bab-nnsen ad semḍen deɣya deɣya. Ila yettwassen belli iwdan i itteddren di ca n iklimaten d isemmaḍen ad ssegmen ijjen arrimet d tazdadt maḥend ad sxinctaren ɣastu n leḥmu. Ad yili alli-nneɣ yegga amenni.

Isseplika Stibel: “Yiḍ-a, mala yeḥma lḥal, nzemmer a neyreḍ ijjen T-shirt, a nenḍu di ca n temda niɣ a nssreɣ klima; maca ca n 15 000 n useggʷas zi mani, ttuɣa wer nzemmer a negg manaya”.

“Alli-nneɣ d wenni i yettɣastaren aṭṭas n yinirji kter zi merra yegmamen, netta iwezzen ca n 2% zi min twezzen ddat-nneɣ amen tekmel maca netta ittɣastar ca n 20% zeg yinirji-nneɣ xmi ttili nezgenfa. Iwa, mala alli ittɣastar aṭṭas n yinirji d leḥmu, ttuɣa ixess-as ad yennam aked uklima. Nettwala belli melmi llan alliten d imeẓẓyanen, ttɣastaren drus n leḥmu, tessenqas zeg ufares n leḥmu”.

Lewzen n walli di min iqqnen ɣer ɣer yinirji-nnes i yetteḥwaja arrimet n bnadem. (© Copyright Institution Smithsonian)

Ittsemma abeddel n uklima n tmurt-nneɣ i yettawin ɣer usiḥmi, izemmer ad isekmummec alli-nneɣ ɛad ktar.

Abani n tɣermiwin i yemxumblen

Tiṭiyurin timeqqranin ttwalant belli anqas n walli-nneɣ itteɛqab ɣer wami kumasan lejdud-nneɣ wer ttilin ca d inegmaren-imelqaḍ, dewlen zeddɣen, bennan amunen xxumblen.

Deg useggʷas n 2021, yessfsi Jeremy DeSilva, i yellan d antrupulug di Dartmouth College (Amarikan) ca n ixsan n yeqcucen i yetteɛqaben ɣer bnadem n Miocène Rudapithecus (9, 85 melyun n iseggusa zi mani) d bnadem n yiḍa (jar 300 000 ar 100 n useggʷas).

Yufa belli yalleh ca n 3 000 n useggʷas zi mani i di yedwel alli-nneɣ ineqqes, wami bdant ca n tɣermiwin mxumblent ttbanent-id (waxxa netta idwel ɣer uxarres-nnes yenna belli anqas n walli ibda zi 20 000 ar 5 000 n useggʷas zi mani).

Yettwala DeSilva belli wami i d-lulen wamunen imxumblen min izzuzaren timessna d lexdayem. Xenni, iwdan, ttuɣa walli uɣil x-asen ad ssnen kulci, ɛawed iwdan maci bezzez x-xasen ad xarrsen ḥuma ad ɛicen, s uyenni i yella alli-nnsen ikumasa ineqqes.

Xelli d taṭiyurit-a ittemrusa x-as useqsi.

“Maci merra amunen n inegmaren-imelqaḍ dewlen mxumblen s ijjen tebridt, ameknaw, imasriyen ca n 3000 n useggʷas zi mani, maca tiddi n walli tenqes ɛawed deg wamunen-a”. I teqqar Eva Jablonka i yellan d taselmadt deg usinag n Cohn n umezruy n tussniwin, d tafilusuft di tussniwin n ixarrisen di tesdawit n Tel Aviv deg Israyil.

Jablonka ula d nettat teqqar belli alliten dewlen neqsen wami i d-banen amunen i yemxumblen, manaya wer ixes ca ad yini belli qa alliten imeẓẓyanen d ijjen twarrit x tkessuyt.

Teqqar “mala aṭṭas n wamunen imeqqranen imxumblen banen-d ca n 3 000 n useggʷas zi mani, manaya izemmer ad yili iqqen ɣer imsebḍiten i ttuɣa jer iklussay n wamun. Mala, azgen ameqqran n yewdan ttuɣa-ten d imeẓlaḍ, qa nessen belli macca taneqsiyt d tmeslayin-nniḍen zemmrent ad ggent imizi x walli”.

Icten ameknaw Marta Lahr, zeg wammas n Leverhulme i yeqqaren aṭewwer n bnadem di tesdawit n Cambridge, ula d nettat tettwala belli anqas n walli ad yili yeqqen ɣer macca.

Deg useggʷas n 2013, tessefsi ca n yexsan d yeqcucen i d-yusin zeg Uruppa d wafrika d asiya, tufa belli Homo Sapiens ttuɣa ɣer-s ijjen walli d ameqqran, izdeɣ jer 20 000 ar 30 000 n useggʷas zi senni ibda ittekmummuc zi 10 000 n useggʷas zi mani.

Manaya yemsar deg wakud mani lejdud-nneɣ wer qqimen d inegmaren-imelqaḍ, wcin-t ḥa i tfellaḥt waha. Tdettet belli wami iwdan qqimen tteklen x tfellaḥt waha min ijjin ibiṭaminen neqsen, issenqes asegmi.

Xenni, ca n imussnawen ssumren ila tiqcucin n yewdant meẓyen deg wakud n ussegʷred animan. Traḥ ula ɣer yiṭan d imuccwen i yellan alli-nnsen inqes jar 10 d 15% x lejdud-nnsen i yellan di berra.

Mala iwdan dewlen d inamunen kter zeg ijjen uɣezdis n uṭewwer, maca ad yili alli-nnsen ikmummec. Maca axarres wer isseqniɛ ca aṭṭas.

“Wer ttimneɣ ca di teṭyurit n ussegʷred animan” I tenna Jablonka.

“Mala nekker a nessiwel x ussegʷred animan, aqqa a x-as nessiwel ca n 800 000 n useggʷas zi mani, mani wer din ula d ijjen tumlayt i yeqqaren aqqa alli n bnadem inqes xenni.”

Iwa, mani nelli lux? S uḥissef, ḥuma a nefhem mayemmi alli ikmummec, ixess a nessen melmi i yebda ittekmummuc.

Maca arcifen n yexsan tterran tameslayt-a teqseḥ bezzaf. Ixsan iqdimen iqqseḥ a ten-naf, ḥaca nettaf ixsan i wer yellin ca d iqdimen waha. Ca n iklussay iqdimen, ittili ɣer-neɣ ijjen weqcuc niɣ tnayen waha.

“Min nessen, ila deg wakud apalistyusini, alliten n yewdan ttuɣa ggin am tiddi n walli n Unyundirtal, min ixsen ad yini ila tiddi n walli n wakud-nni yemɣer cwayt n x tiddi n walli-nneɣ luxa” Inna Tattersall.

“Azgen ameqqran n walliten n Homo Sapiens min ɣer yella 20 000 n useggʷas, ttuɣa meɣren. Maca melmi i yebda alli ittenqis, wa d ijjen useqsi wer x-as nessin walu. Merra min nessen, ila alli-nneɣ luxa yemẓi x walli n wakud-nni aqdim s 13%”.

Ma tiɣist-nneɣ tettraḥ tettenqis?

Min ixes ad yini mala alli-nneɣ yettraḥ ittekmummuc? Ma ad yejj ca n later x tiɣist n yewdan? Ɛlaḥsab ijjen teṭyurit, alliten imeẓẓyanen zemmren ad aneɣ-jjen niɣis kter niɣ nṭemmes kṭer niɣ wer ɣer-sen ittili qaɛ later x tiɣist.

S tidett ila tiddi n walli maci d kulci. Alli n wergaz yemɣer s 11% x wenni n temɣart. Maca tirzzutin qqarent ila irgazen d temɣarin kifkif di tmessna.

Din ca n iklussay n yewdan am Homo floresiensis d Homo Nalesi, ttuɣa-ten d imeẓẓyanen n tiddi, maca ttuɣa amsurruf-nnsen yemxumbel, din wi iqqaren ila tuqqniwin n walli-nneɣ d wenni issegmaren tiɣist-nneɣ.

S umata, tiddi n walli teqqen ɣer tiɣist.

“Mala tiddi n walli-nneɣ temẓi manaya ixes ad yini belli tiɣist-nneɣ ad tenqes” I yeqqar Stibel.

“Maca mala nexzer aked min negga di 10 000 n iseggusa i yeɛda, negga ca n imassen n tetiknulujit i daneɣ-ittejjan a ntilicarja timessna deɣya deɣya. Nzemmer a nestuka tumlayin deg pisiyat a nessxdem macina maḥend a neḥseb timelsayin deg wemkan-nneɣ”.

“Izemmer alli-nneɣ ad yenqes di tiɣist, maca manaya wer ixes ca ad yini, ila aklasi-nneɣ, tiɣist-nneɣ a tenqes s kulci”.

Tala: BBC

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