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Ttlat 23 Yulyu 2024

Umi ufin “amezruy n Arrif” innuffer deg ijjen baliza.

Deg useggʷas i yeɛdan, ggin di Urrextun (i yellan d ijjen ubilaj d ameẓẓyan di tmurt n Basek) ijjen umelqi n ifuṭuten deg wammas asusyudelsan n Pagoeta.

Amelqi-ya ggin-as i yisem “Arrif, girra takulunyalt, zi lxezrat n Eustaquio Berriochoa Elgresta“, mmlin-d dag-s ca n ifuṭuten i wufin deg ijjen baliza n Berriochoa, ifuṭuten-nni mmalen-d ca n tɣemriwin wer x-asent nessin walu x girra n Arrif.

Deg ijjen baliza i ttuɣa yellan deg ijjen garaj di Orretxu, ufin dag-s ijjen walbum ɣer daxel, iccur s ifuṭuten. Imeggura-ya ttwaggen s uglysirin, tametta-ya deɣya deɣya tḍeyyaɛ, s uyenni d atebheḍ mamec ifuṭuten n Berriochoa, qqimen ttwaḥḍan ar yiḍ-a deg ijjen lḥal d asebḥan.

138 n ifuṭuten i yellan di baliza-ya, ɛemmers wer ẓrin tfawt. Urretxuan, i ttuɣa yeḥḍan baliza-ya deg ijjen lgaraj, yenna i twacunt-nnes qbel ma ad yemmet ila baliza-nni n Berriochoa.

“Temsawaḍ-d akid-i familiya n Urretxu, tɛawed-ayi tḥajit-a. Nec zeg wayyawen-nnes zi Berrio, xenni bdiɣ rezzuɣ x min iɛna bnadem-a. Ar da, ttuɣa wer ssineɣ walu x ufutugraf n twacunt”. D aya i yenna afutugraf Andono Lubaki i yeṭṭfen baliza-nni n ifuṭuten deg useggʷas n 2017.

Ilul Eustaquio Berriochoa Elgresta di Urrextun deg useggʷas n 1899 (yemmut di 1987). Ttuɣa-t d amuhendis aɣerman, yegga fus-nnes deg usmaynu n waṭṭas n tneddam di tmurt Bask.

Manaya ssnen-t ayyawen-nnes, maca wer ssinen ca ila netta ttuɣa itteɛjib-as ad yegg ifuṭuten i imukan mani ila yettraḥ.

“Ttuɣa-t d uma-s n jeddi-tneɣ, maca netta d jeddi mlaggʷajen x wayawya. Ttuɣa yudes i twacunt-nneɣ, maca ila wer nessin ca ila netta d afutugraf. Jeddi ameqqran qaɛ (baba-s n Eustaquio) ttuɣa-t netta d amɣar n Urretxu. Illa issɣer tarwa-nnes mliḥ, ca yeffeɣ d abennay, ca d amuhendis ca tteggen dizayen… Ma tiḥenjirin ila xeddment di tmessugurin n ttmenyat. Jeddi ila yella netta d abennay, maca Eustaquio yeffeɣ d amuhndis aɣerman. Iraḥ ɣer Madrid ḥuma ad din iɣer, imken din i yedwel itteɛjib-as ad yegg ifuṭuten. Itɛin d jeddi-tneɣ ameqqran i das-yewcin aparatu n ifuṭuten, ameggaru-ya qqaren-as Carl Zeiss, ittwasenneɛ deg useggʷas n 1917. Luxa ɣer-i aparatu-ya. Mala neḍfer later n kamira, a nessen ila ttuɣa tettwasenneɛ deg Uliman deg wakud-nni. Banen-d ca n ifuṭuten di Urretxu n twacunt-nneɣ, imken luxa neqqar qa d Eustaquio s ixef-nnes i ten-yeggin”.

Deg ifuṭuten-nzemmer a nḥada ijjen mezri ɣer-s maḥend ad iqelleb, ad yegg ifuṭuten, s ijjen tebridt teccur s tẓuri, terwes deg ifiltren n yiḍa.

Maca awi-d a nẓer mayen yellan di balizat, ila din ijjen txabit wer das-neggi leḥsab: abarru n ifuṭuten i yettwaggen di girra n Arrif deg useggʷas n 1923, mmalen-d ca n wudmawen zi girra-ya; iɛeskriyen d imezdaɣ n Arrif. Ca n ifuṭuten ila wer ten-yessin ula d ijjen.

“D ijjen ḥajet d aweḍḍer; wi ila yettɣilen ila miyya n useggʷas zi mani, ijjen mmi-s n Urretxu, yessidef ijjen kamira ɣer umenɣi n Arrif!”

Iraḥ Eustaquio Berriochoa ɣer Arrif ḥma ad yili d aɛeskri din; teṭṭef-it girra umi ttuɣa isɛedda kinta-nnes, am waṭṭas n iḥudriyen-nniḍen, aṭṭas zzag-sen usin-d zi tmurt n Bask. Iraḥ ɣer girra iɛeṭṭel, minzi ataɣ ixes ad innufsel zi baba-s. S uyenni yeqqseḥ a nessen mani i ɣa nsettef Berriochoa di girra n Arrif deg useggʷas n 1923, minzi ila ixess-as ad da yili qbel i twasit-nnes. Ɛlaḥsab umlayen i ɣer-neɣ, netta yekka Nnaḍur, Anwal d Lḥusima.

“Deg wakud, mani ila tella girra di Arrif, ila gedlen x iɛeskriyen ad kid-sen awiyen iparatuten n ufuṭu. Ttuɣa din ifutugrafen d iɛeskriyen d ta d lxedmet-nnsen, tteggen ifuṭuten ɛlaḥsab prupaɣanda. Ula d tibratin i ttuɣa ttarin iɛeskriyen, ila ḥeṭṭan-tent.”

Azgen ameqqran n ifuṭuten di baliza-ya, yura x-as melmi i ttwaggen, a zzag-sen nekkes ḥa drus zzag-sen waha. “Din ijjen useddi n ifuṭuten i d-ibanen di balizat, ca yus-d zi Fransa, minzi yura x-asen s tefransist. Din ifuṭuten n ugama ɛawed, maca ijjen tqabsat ila dag-s ca n ḥwayej spisyal, am ijjen tebɣa d tamiẓiḍt. Nerẓem cwayt cwayt x-aneɣ tqabsat-nni, nufa dag-s ca n ifuṭuten-nniḍen ɣer deffer-nnes, nnuffren. Ttuɣa d ifuṭuten i yegga i imezdaɣ n Arrif. Eustaquio ila yessen belli yegdel x-as ad ten-yefser, imken s manaya i zi ten-isnuffer”.

Matiriyal i yessxdem ttuɣa deɣya deɣya ittḍeyyaɛ – ttwaggen s uglysin – min t-ittejjan a x-as ixdem deɣya maḥend ad issufeɣ fuṭu-nnes. “Xminni i txeddmed s uglysin, ɣer-k drus n tseɛɛatin ḥma ad tessufɣed ifuṭuten. Da nzemmer a nettwala ca n ifuṭuten i yegga umi ttuɣa wer ɣer-s min ɣa yegg. Nettwala iɛeskriyen, ttarin tibratin i familiyat-nnes xmi zyenfan. Illa yegdel x-as ad yegg uyenni, ad yili ttuɣa ittegg lxedmet-a s tnuffra”.

Udem i wer ittwissnen n girra n Arrif

Ifuṭuten-a mmalen-d ca n wudmawen wer ttwissnen zi girra n Arrif. “Yudes ɣer imezdaɣ, yegga-asen ifuṭuten. Xmi nxezzer deg ifuṭuten, nzemmer a naca ila yesseɛda aṭṭas n lweqt aked imezdaɣ, imsurruf akid-sen s uweqqer. Deg ixfawalen-nnes x ifuṭuten, itteydar-d isem n ijjen uɛeskri-nniḍen qqaren-as Ejea. Ittban-d axmi ila tteffɣen zi lqecla, ttraḥen ar ledcur mani ttkunen imezdaɣ. Ifuṭuten i yegga tettudem-d zzag-sen tamdant, ggin ameknaw isilfiten. Aparatu-nnes, ila dag-s ijjen umesmar iɛeddel zzag-s lweqt, issxeddam-it ḥuma ad issujed fuṭu-nnes.

Ijjen tḥenjirt zi Arrif

Amek yeqqar Andoni Lubaki, ttuɣa Eustaquio Berriochoa d ijjen zeg ipilaren. “Zeg ijjen uɣezdis, ila weyyen kamirat d timeqqranin di girra, maḥend ad ggen prupaɣanda i lgic. Xenni, Eustaquio, yeksi akid-s ijjen uparaṭu d ameẓẓyan, maḥend ad yexdem x lxaḍer-nnes. Mamec netta zeg yewdan i yudrusen i yewcin lxezrat-nnsen x girra. Ad yili, umi yugur zi Urretxu, iwdan d leɛwayed i yeẓra di tmura-ya, weyyen taynit-nnes. Deg useggʷas n 1923, imezdaɣ n Urretxun ila wer ɛdin ca 1.500 n iwdan, ttuɣa-t d ijjen ubilaj d ameẓẓyan. Mmi-s yettɛawad ila baba-s ttuɣa itteydar lebda umi yeffeɣ zi Urretxu ɣer Madrid maḥend ad din iɣer, ila wer yessin bu taspanyut mliḥ, ilemd-itt di tmezgida. Xenni, umi iraḥ ɣer Arrif, yerra taynit i imezdaɣ d tudert-nnsen… Yegga ifuṭuten i ca n wudmawen zeg imezdaɣ n Arrif deg ijjen lḥala d tasebḥant, udem deg wudem.”.

Tnayen n tarwa n Eustaquio Berriochoa ɛad aqqa-ten ddren. “Tarwa-nnes wer ssinen ca ifuṭuten n baba-tsen. Mamec nenna, ɛemmers ma yessiwel x girra n Arrif. Qqaren tarwa-nnes, ad yili temsar-as din ca n lḥajet d taɛeffant s uyenni yekkes a x-as issiwel.”

D isuraf imezwura ɣer ufuṭujurnalizem

Yenna Juantxo Egaña i yellan d afutugraf, d adikumuntarist agrafik, luxa d netta i ibedden x wefsar di Urretxu, -yenna- ila “din ca n ifuṭuten cnin s waṭṭas; iɛeskriyen deg wecbar, d tudert n imezdaɣ n Arrif… Bu ifuṭuten-a ɣer-s ijjen lxezrat teqqen ɣer-s waha. Izwar-ayi ẓriɣ ca n lexdayem-nniḍen n ibaskuten x girra n Arrif, am wenni n Ricardo Marti. Ula d Marti ila ɣer-s ijjen temladast d tamdant aṭṭas, am Berriocha. Isewwer-d Marti sslam i yetticen iɛeskriyen umi ttuɣa tteffɣen zi Pasaia. Maca wami ẓriɣ lxedmet n Berriochoa, dehceɣ, nnbehḍeɣ, uciɣ s ijjen tebridt niɣ s tenniḍen s isuraf imezwura n ufutujurnalizem, i d ɣa asen menbeɛd; nzemmer a nini ila yella netta d apilar n ufutujurnalizem di girra n 1936.”

Tamɣart di ssuq.

Ifuṭuten i ɣer-neɣ x girra n Arrif yiḍa msebḍan. Ca n ttsawar n iɛeskriyen i yettrinaren, inni i d-sekken ɣer girra. “Ca n iḥudriyen ttuɣa ixess-asen ad ggen girra d nitni di lɛumur-nnsen 21 n useggʷas, ttuɣa ttwalan ila girra-ya maci nnsen. Girra-ya ggin-t iɛeskriyen, xenni ifassen-nnsen beqqḍen deg uberyuḍ n ijjen girra ttuɣa-t teqseḥ aṭṭas. Di 1921, jar yulyuz d tɣuct, mmuten ca n 12 000 n iɛeskriyen ispunya di girra n Arrif. Sekken 12 000 n iḥudriyen ad mmten di girra bla ḥeṭṭu, azgen ameqqran-nnsen ttuɣa-ten d ibaskuten. Iḥudriyen-a i yemmuten ttuɣa wer ɣer-sen min ɣa rebḥen zi girra-ya tampiryalit, takulunyalt. Sxedmen ca n titkniyin d tiɛeffanin di girra-ya. Deg umeggaru n girra tamaḍlant tamezwarut, ttuɣa gedlen gaz n uwerdal, maca sxedmen-t Ispunya di girra n Arrif” D aya i yenna Egaña.

Azgen ameqqran n ifuṭuten i yeggin deg ufsar n wammas asusyudelsan n Pagoeta di Urretxu, ttuɣa-ten n Berriochoa, maca nzemmer a naf ifuṭuten n ca n ibaskuten-nniḍen deg wakud-nni. Ɛawed ineɣmisen n girra n Arrif i ttuɣa yellan di jjurnalat, tisɣunin n lweqt-nni.

Tala: naiz.eus

Eustaquio Berriochoa Elgarresta, umi i d-yewweḍ ɣer Mlilet. (Eustaquio BERRIOCHOA ELGARRESTA)

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