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Lḥed 14 Yebril 2024

Min teɛna Rosa Parks issnekkren aɣewweɣ kunṭra i ubeṭṭu amessaẓur deg umarikan ?

Xminni i dd-njebbed awal x izumal n unhezzi n tlelli tameddant d umeglissaẓur (antiracisme)  deg umarikan, ad yili nettat zeg wudmawen i dd-ittasen ɣer taynit-nneɣ aked Martin Luther King.

Man wenn zzag-neɣ i wer yeẓrin niɣ wer yeɣrin yinaw-nnes ittwassnen di tecli i yeffɣen di Washington aseggʷas n 1963 d netta isɣuyyu x usnuḥyu aẓuran (discrimination raciale) kunṭra i Imarikaniyen i yellan iẓuran-nnsen zeg Wafrika, mani dag-s yenna taykunt-nnes « I have a dream ».

Maca qa din aṭṭas n wudmawen-nniḍen i yejjin later-nnsen deg umezruy n unhezzi-ya. Zeg wudmawen-a nettaf « Rosa Parks », zegga tegga ijjen « tmeslayt d tameẓẓyant » deg ijjen lkar deg Walabama, ar ami i tessreɣ timessi n tnezbayt kunṭra i yizerfan n ubeṭṭu amessaẓur (ségrégation raciale) deg Umarikan, tessizzel maḥend ad kksen izerfan-nni.

Min teɛna Rosa Parks ?

Tlul Rosa Parks di 04 Febrayer aseggʷas n 1913 di temdint n Tuskegee di twilayt n Walabama, baba-s ila d abennay, d anejjar qqaren-as James MacCauley, d yemma-s d taselmadt qqaren-as Leona Edwards MacCauley.

Baba-s d yemma-s mlellafen deg useggʷas-nnes wis tnayen, temmuti aked yemma-s d uma-s maẓuẓ ḥuma ad ddren di firma n jedd-s zi yemma-s, ṭṭerf i temdint n Montgomery.

Di temẓi-nnes, Parks teḍfer ilemmuden-nnes di taddart x ufus n yemma-s i ixedmen d taselmadt deg icten zi temzgidawin n Imarikaniyen i yellan iẓuran-nnsen zeg Wafrika, mamec teɣra Rosa di temzgidawin-nni deg ijjen lweqt.

Maca tudert-nnes di firma, wer tt-ttuɣi ca lebda tehna, minzi ila din jjmaɛet n « Ku Klux klan » tamessaẓurt taradikalt i ttuɣa itthuddan lebda x ayt bab n yilem aberkan, nettat izwar-as tessiwel x manaya zegga « skemḍen tiglizin n yiberkanen d tmezgidawin d tmenɣiwt-nnsen d uweddeb-nnsen ».

Jedd-s cḥal i ttuɣa ittnus ifaqq ḥma ad iɛess x taddart d netta itteggʷed ad sugen icemlalen-nni. Di llyali mani yettwala qesḥent s waṭṭas, ayt bab n twacunt ila ttraḥen ad nsen d nitni yirḍen merra arruḍ-nnsen maḥend ad ilin wejden i trewla.

Wami tehlek yemma-s, tbeṭṭel Parks tamzgida-nnes n tɣuri d nettat ɣer-s seṭṭac n useggʷas maḥend ad tt-ttqabel, zi senni wer teṭṭif bu adiplum n llisi ad tili d taselmadt amec ila tessitim.

tala: Getty images

Deg useggʷas n 1932, tewwiya Rosa ijjen qqaren-as Raymond Parks, i ttuɣa yellan d aḥeffaf d ameɣnas deg yiger n tseqqar timeddanin, d nettat ila ɣer-s tseɛṭac n useggʷas di buḥbel-nnes. Texdem d taxeyyaḍt n warruḍ, maca argaz-nnes iɛern-itt ad traḥ ad tɣer ad teṭṭef adiplum di llisi.

Izerfan n Jim Crow

Di lqern n tseɛṭac, ffɣen-dd ca n izerfan di ca n twilayin deg umarikan, qqaren-asen izerfan n Jim Crow. Izerfan-a ttexsen ad teqqim tudert n Imarikaniten icemlalen d iberkanen ‘tebḍa maca temqudda’, aya ila din ijjen beṭṭu di merra iraqqen n tudert tamatut, am tmezgidawin d teglizin d tḥuna n tsebbabt, ula d imessalayen d tsebbalin n waman n tsessi. Wer din bu ttuɣi bu ca n umquddi di tidett, mani Imarikaniyen iberkanen skarfsen-ten s ubeṭṭu-ya aɛeffan.  

Manaya yejja aṭṭas n yewdan wer dasen-yeɛjib bu lḥal x ddegg-a n izerfan, ttexsen ad x-asen ɣewwɣen, ad awḍen ɣer umquddi jar merra midden. Zi ddegg-a n tnegmamin ittwaggen i manaya am tmesmunt tanamurt n tnukkra s imkuluren, tudef Rosa Parks akid-sen nettat d wergaz-nnes Raymond, texdem d tasukritirit di tseṭṭa-nnes di Montogmery ar aseggʷas n 1956. Yedwel unhezzi-nni ḥuma ad awḍen ɣer tzerft d umquddi zi senni ad tettwassen s « unhezzi n tseqqar timeddanin ».

Imassen n umutti ttuɣa-ten d iraqqen mani tteggen ddegg-ni n ubeṭṭu amessaẓur. Alaḥsab azref n temdint n Montogmery, ttuɣa ixess x yirgazen d temɣarin d iḥenjiren i yellan iẓuran-nnsen d afrikanen, ad qqimen di lekrasa n deffer n ṭṭubisat. Mamec i ttuɣa ixess-asen ad jjen amkan-nnsen i ca n ucemlal mala wer qqimen lekrasa ɣer zzat.

 « S ijjen usniɛ d ameẓẓyan » isnekker tanezbayt

Di dujembir amezwaru zeg useggʷas n 1955, ttuɣa Rosa Parks teqqim di lekrasa imezwura n inni deffer ittwaggen i iberkanen, nyin-dd ca n imnayen icemlalen x ṭṭubis-nni, yetter ucifur zi tlata n iberkanen-nniḍen ad jjen amkan-nnsen ḥuma ad qqimen imnayen icemlalen. Inneɣni kkren, maca nettat tugi.

Tettwaṭṭef, ggin-as mulṭa n 10 n idularen wami tekka deg izerfan, d 04 n idularen nniḍen ḥuma ad txelles lmeḥkama. Maca xelli amenni, tugi, tenna belli azref-nni maci d lḥeqq. Maca teqbel min das-yenna E.D Nixon, aselway n tmesmunt n tnukkra s imkuluriten maḥend ad stanfen leḥkam-nni, ad wten deg izerfan n beṭṭu amessaẓur deg Walabama.

X mayemmi tugi ad tejj amkan-nnes deg wass-nni, tura Parks deg tuṭubyugrafit-nnes aya : « Uḥḥleɣ zeg umsurruf aɛeffan i ttuɣa xaf-i tteggen. Necc ila lliɣ am inniḍen waha. Drus n twalatin mani kidi msurrufen ca n icemlalen nurmal, s uya ttuɣa ssneɣ twacit-nni mliḥ. Uciɣ belli d ta d lweqt min kid-i ɣa msurrfen ca n icemlalen s tebridt-nni s ixef-nnes ».

 « Ɛemmer-s wer ɣileɣ belli lami ugiɣ ad jjeɣ amkan-inu i ḥedd, manaya ataf ad igg fus-nnes ḥuma ad ikkes beṭṭu amessaẓur deg yeffus ».

tala: Getty images

Maca d manaya i yemsaren nican.

Ukzen ca n imeɣaren n tseqqar timeddanin, deg wakud-nni, x uzellif-nnsen Marten Luther King, ila min imsaren amenni d abrid ixess ad t-ṭṭfen. Laɣan imɣaren-nni i merra Imarikaniyen ayt bu iẓuran Afrikanen ḥuma ad kksen tnaya di lkiran n Montgomery, d abeddi aked Rosa Parks, d aɣewweɣ x lḥugra i yettegg ubeṭṭu amessaẓur.

Bdan beṭṭan tiwriqin i di ttettren inamuren iberkanen ḥuma ad buykutan ass n 05 Dujember amezwaru. Imeɣnas xenni sbedden « Montgomrey Improvement Association » i ɣa ibuykutan.  

Manayenni ttuɣa-t d ijjen umɛali (défi) d ameqqran i lkiran, minzi 70% n iwdan i t-isxeddamen zeg iberkanen, mala kksen x tnaya di lkiran-nni ataf ad ggen ca n txessura d timeqqranin i ccarika i ten-isegguren.

Maca ttuɣa-t d amɛali s ixef-nnes i imnayen d imsebriden minzi ca zzag-sen ataf ixess-asen ad uguren 30 klm x iḍaren ɣer lxedmet-nnsen.

Ass amezwaru ttuɣa abuykut yeggur mliḥ, xenni di tmeddit, iwca Martin Luther king ijjen yinaw zzat i ijjen lɣaci inneyrwen zzat i teglizin, yenna dag-s « tadimukratit n Umarikan tettic-aneɣ lḥeqq a negg timeskanin x lḥeqq-nneɣ ».

Yedwel King netta d ameɣar n ubuykut. Zi senni hudden x-as s tmenɣiwt. Sḍuqqzen qaɛ taddart-nnes, maca netta d twacunt-nnes nejmen wer ten-yuɣi walu.

Yeqqim ubuyukt kṭer zeg useggʷas, cerken dag-s iwdan zi berra i Montgomery, ttwaggent tmeskanin x ubeṭṭu i ttuɣa yellan deg iḥemmasen, lapisinat, d ca n iraqqen-nniḍen deg umarikan merra.

tala: Getty images

Tarennawt tamezwarut

Abuykut-nni tegga Parks, iwca ixarrisen i waṭṭas n midden, mani tasenbḍayt i yuɛlan Tamarikant tegga ijjen teɣtast di 13 nufember aseggʷas n 1956 tenna dag-s ila izerfan n Montgomery wer llin ca d idusturiyen d twilayt n Walabama. Minzi usin-dd kunṭra i uparagraf i yeqqaren ila dinni « amquddi deg uḥeṭṭu ».

Di 20 Dujembir, issufeɣ-dd Martin King Luther ijjen uswieḍ yeqqar dag-s belli abuykut n lkiran n Montgomrey isala, itter zeg iberkanen ad ɛawden ad dag-s nyen.

Isala abuykut deg wass-nniḍen, mani ttuɣa Rosa Parks nettat zi tmezwura i yenyin di lkiran zegga isala ubeṭṭu amessaẓur dag-s.

D anɛam s tilalt-nnes deg ussreɣi n tmeskanin kunṭra i ubeṭṭu amessaẓur deg Umarikan, tedwel Rosa qqaren-as « tayemmat n tseqqar timeddanin ».

Iwweḍ Martin Luther King d unhezzi-nnes anefra ad yegg tarennawt-nnes tamezwarut, mani i t-iḍefren tirennawin-nniḍen i tseqqar n iberkanen deg Umarikan.

 « Ɛad wer wwiḍeɣɣer min xseɣ »

Ca n yewdan ɛawden ila Parks tugi zeɛma ad tejj amkan-nnes minzi ttuɣa-tt tuḥel, awerni i ijjen wass n lxedmet issaḥalen, maci s minzi tbedd deg wudem n umsurruf aɛeffan i yetteggen kunṭra iberkanen.

Tenna Rosa Parks x manaya di tuṭubyugrafit-nnes : « ttuɣa wer uḥileɣ ca di arrimet-inu, niɣ uḥleɣ zegga saliɣ lxedmet-inu. Xenni wer dayi-ttuɣa ca d tawessart, waxxa tteswirt-inu ɣer midden, axmi nec d ijjen twessart. Xenni ila ɣer-i 42 n useggʷas. Lla, ila uḥḥleɣ ma ad semḥeɣ di lḥeqq-inu ɛad ».

Maci massa Rosa weḥḥed-s i ttuɣa yugin ad tejj amkan-nnes i icemlalen. Izwarent-as tinniḍen, ameknaw Claudette Colvin i ttuɣa yeggin amenni deg useggʷas n 1955, d nettat ttuɣa wer teɛdi 15 n useggʷas di buḥbel-nnes.

Maca s minzi ttuɣa-tt d tasukritirit di tmesmunt n tnukkra s iwdan imkuluren d icten zi tnegmamin-nnes. Minzi bedden imeɣnas n unhezzi n tlelliyin timeddanin aked uɣezdis-nnes, tedwel tɣawsa-nnes tettwassen maci am temɣarin-nniḍen i das-izwaren. Tɣawsa-nnes i yeggin bezzez x tmedint n Montgomery ḥma ad tekkes abeṭṭu di lkiran-nnes.  

Teqqim Parks d tagmamt d tameɣnast di tmesmunt tanamurt i tnukkra s imkuluren, tbedd aked unhezzi n tseqqar  timeddanin di temdint n Detroit di twilayt n Michigan i di temmutti nettat d urgaz-nnes ḥuma ad dag-s ɛicen aseggʷas n 1957. Texdem jar aseggʷas n 1965 d 1988 ɣer wegmam n ukungris John Conyers mani ila tettɛawan inni bla tzeddiɣt ḥuma ad ṭṭfen tazeddiɣt-nnsen.

Mamec tegga aked wergaz-nnes aseggʷas n 1987 « asinag n Rosa Raymond Parks i tgumi n yixef », asinag-a ila irezzun ad dd-yawi tiwhalin n lxedmet deg yiger n uselmed d lxedmet i iḥudriyen, ula kṭer inni afrikanen.

tala: Getty images

Xelli amenni, Parks ila wer dag-s iɛjib bu lḥal ; ttuɣa tettwala ila Amarikan ɛad wer iḥeṭṭi ca nican imanen n inamuren-nnes iberkanen.

Nɣin Martin Luther King i dd-yerrin taynit n tmurt ɣer ubuykut n lkiran, qell zi 10 n useggʷas x min das-yemsaren i Parks.

Deg icten zeg imsagaren n tɣemsa i kid-s ggin, tenna Parks : « aqqa tteggeɣ tizemmar-inu maḥend ad waliɣ s ijjen tiṭṭ d tasebḥant ɣer tiwecca. Maca nec wer ttimenɣ ca s ca n ḥajet qqaren-as lehna nican. Ɛad itteqqes-ayi lḥal minzi ssneɣ ila din inhezziten n jjmaɛet n Ku Klux Klan d waṭṭas n tassaẓurt ; wer din min ɣa nessitem ɛad. Wer wwiḍeɣ ca ɣer min ssitimeɣ ɛad ».

Teṭṭef Parks aseggʷas n 1999 tamidayt n ukungris n wureɣ, nettat i yellan tamidayt n wuddur itticen i imeddanen deg Umarikan alaḥsab tizemmar timeqqranin i tewca i tmurt.

Zegga temmut di 24 Kṭuber zeg useggas n 2005, yenna-dd ukungris Amarikani ila ixess ad ssersen lxecbet-nnes di lebni n ukapitul, mani inerzaf ẓrint di twalat tameggarut.

Parks ttuɣa-tt d tamɣart tamezwarut taberkant imi ggin assemɣar-nni deg Umarikan.

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