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Lḥed 23 Yunyu 2024

Lyinin: 3 n isura ḥuma a nefhem min igga i tegrawla tasuvyatit

Aqqa-aneɣ di llilet n 16 n wabril 1917. Luluf n midden ttrajan s lambat deg ifassen x sira n ussers (la gare) n Finland di Petrogard (Saint Pétersbourg). Xenni, ijjen wergaz yehwa-d zi macina uca yebda yessawal zzat i lɣaci.

Agdud yeḥwaj afra, agdud yeḥwaj aɣrum, agdud yeḥwaj tamurt…”.

Midden min ɣer yessawal nitni d Irusiyen, maca wa i yessawalen wer ittili ḥa d Vladimir Ilitch Oulianov, ittwassnen s yisem n Lyinin.

Ammu i yebda aɣewweɣ-nnes kuntra i udabu (pouvoir). Netta d ijjen zeg wudmawen imeqqranen n Uruppa di lqern wis ɛecrin, mamec ibeddel i lebda amezruy n Arusiya, d bnadem i yettweqqren, tteggʷden zzag-s di twalat d icten.

Snewjen luluf n yewdan Lyinin wami i d-yusa ɣer ussres n Finland di Petrograd (Saint-Pétersbourg). Tala: Getty Images.

Ilul di tempraṭurit tatsarit tarusit, yekka ijjen uzgen d ameqqran zi tudert-nnes berra i tmurt-nnes. Maca adwal-nnes di llilet n 1917 ad issenhezz tiḥenya n ijjen tmurt teɣreq deg uberyuḍ n uɣewweɣ.

Ar mani yedwel di xemsa n iseggusa d amɣar amezwaru n tmunt tasuvyatit.

Maca mamec yegga ar mani isɣewweɣ Arusiya di sebɛa n iseggusa? Min teɛna taysi-nnes (son héritage) ? Da ad awem-d-nesseɛda tlata n isura i yessefhamen manaya.

Ddewla n ijjen umulli.

Ilul uḥudri Vladimir deg useggʷas n 1870 di temdint tarusit Simbirsk, x tmewwa n Volga.

Ijjen temdint i ibeddlen isem-nnes ɣer Oulianovsk d asemɣer i yisem n twacunt n Lyinin.

Waxxa twacunt-nnes d tenni iɛelmen agla, Lynin yemmel-d zi temẓi-ines ijjen wudem d aɣewwaɣ. Maca din ijjen temsart i das-isfaqqen tawengimt-nnes ḥuma ad yili kunṭra i tempiryalit: Wami nɣin uma-s amenzu Alexandre.

Uma-s amenzu ittwaneɣ deg useggʷas n 1887 wami i t-ttahmen belli ila ixes ad ineɣ tsar “Alexander III” n wakud-nni.

Xenni, di tempraṭurit tarusit, ila teqseḥ tudert x waṭṭas n imezdaɣ i ttuɣa ixeddmen di tfellaḥt, ittekk x-asen buheyyuf d misarya.

Deg wemnad-a mani yebda Lyinin issuruf isuraf-nnes imezwura deg webrid aɣewwaɣ uca di 1895 ittwaṭṭef minzi ifesser taprupaganda tasusyal-dimukraṭit.

Awerni ijjen useggʷas, rxun-as-d, ila isseɛda tlata n iseggusa d aḍlib di Sibiriya i yeggʷjen. Ar aseggʷas n 1900, yerwel ɣer Juniv (swisra) mani i yegga aked imeddukal-nnes ajurnal n Iskra.

Vladimir Lyinin (S wadday x yeffus), aked twacunt-nnes. Uma-s Alexandre (ibedd deg wammas) ittwaneɣ deg useggʷas n 1887.

Isem n ujurnal-a i nzemmer a nesturjem ɣer “Asfeḍ”, netta ila irezzu mamec i ɣa yezdi jar unhezzi asusyal-dimukraṭ Arusi zi berra.

Deg iseggusa-ya i yesseɛda netta d aḍlib, ila akid-s tamɣart-nnes, Nadia Krupskaya, i ttuɣa kid-s icerken ixarrisen-nnes igrawliyen. S tnayen idsen aqqa-ten aked temladast tamarksit i yegga Karl Marx Aliman.

Maca ḥa deg useggʷas n 1903 mani Lyinin i ɣa ikumasa ittqarra di sseyasa. Manaya yemsar wami ila yettɛic kudkud di Lundun, din i yettwagg ukungris wis tnayen n umulli asusyal-dimukraṭ Arusi i di yedwel Lyinin d amɣar.

D ijjen ukungris ila irezzun ad ismun irusiyen i ttuɣa yellan kunṭra i tetsarit d ukapitalizem, maca isban-d ukungris-a tnayen n tseḍmiwin.

Zeg ijjen uɣezdis, Imuncuvikiyen, i ttuɣa rezzun ijjen usistim d abarlamani adimukraṭ Awruppi. Zeg ijjen uɣezdis-nniḍen, din Ibulcuvikiyen, x ixef-nnsen din Lyinin min ttuɣa iɛelmen ijjen uxarres-nniḍen x mamec izemmren ad awḍen ɣer udabu.

Yenna Juilan Casanova, amerzu deg umezruy i BBC Mundo belli “axarres n imuncuvikiyen yeqqen ɣer wamun Awruppi, maca nettaf akunsipt n ibulcuvikiyen yeqqen ɣer ijjen umulli d anammas, wer das-yecqi qaɛ ca n usistim d aberlamani”.

Ɣer umeggaru d ibulcuvikiyen d nitni i irebḥen, raḥen ggin amulli aciyuɛi, i ɣa iḥekmen tamunt tasuvyatit zeg wami yettwagg aseggʷas n 30 dujembir 1922.

Ila rezzun ijjen ddewla itteḥkam dag-s ijjen umulli waha mani amɣar-nnes amezwaru wer yelli ḥa d Vladimir Lyinin.

Maca mamec ggin ibulcuvikiyen wwḍen ad sḥurfen (imposer) ddegg-a n umedya n leḥkam?

Lyinin (iqqim deg wammas) aked ismunen-nnes igrawliyen irusiyen. Zzag-sen Yuli Martov (iqqim x yeffus) i ɣa idewlen d amɣar n imuncuvikiyen.

Aṭṭas n ddenf

Ḥma ad d-nerr x useqsi-ya, ixess ad nedwel ɣer useggʷas n 1917 ibeddlen amezruy n Arusiya.

Xenni, Lyinin ttuɣa ɛad aqqa-t d aḍlib, d lḥal n Irusiyen amenni i yeqqim, ttɛicen di ẓẓelḍ. Buheyyuf ilqef lkampawat d ixeddamen di fabrikat tteddren ẓẓelḍ, min irenyen aman deg uberyuḍ d acrak n Arusya deg umenɣi amaḍlan amezwaru.

Uca di Febrayer n useggʷas-nni nit, alaḥsab akalender Arusi, niɣ di mars alaḥsab cchurat i zi nḥesseb neccin, tettwagg tagrawla tamezwarut tameqqrant deg useggʷas n 1917.

Tanekra-ya i ɣa yejjen tsar Nikulas II ad yeḍleq i leḥkam, minzi wer iqqim ḥedd zeg imezdaɣ ittic-as aswizi-nnes, d aya i yeggin taneqqiḍt tameggarut i tgelda tarusit.

Manaya i yewcin amkan i twaggit n ijjen lḥukuma n kudkud, dag-s imuncuvikiyen i ɣa yeggen ijjen wemyas (équilibre) akked iseviyatiyen n Petrogard, amek i ttuɣa i das-qqaren Saint-Pétersbourg.

Maca isviytiyen-a ttuɣa ssegguren-ten ibulcuvikiyen, “i wer ɣer ttuɣi ula d ijjen lhimmet zegga i tewḍa tatsarit”. I yeqqar Casanova.

Maca a ɣer-sen tili ijjen tilalt awern-i i manaya.

Zegga i das-iwweḍ lexbar n tegrawla n Febrayer, yeffeɣ-d Lyinin zi Swisra uca yegga ijjen usafar d azegrar s macina, yeclex Aliman, Sswid d Finland.

Ttuɣa teɣrim deg umezwaru mani yeḍra: Assers n Finland di Saint-Pétersbourg (Arusiya). Mayemmi : Maḥend ad yebda tagrawla, tagrawla tabulcuvikt. S uyenni yinaw-nnes n tmeddit-nni zeg wabril isala ammu:

« Ixess a nemseksi maḥend a ɣer-neɣ tili tagrawla tasusyalt, a nemneɣ ar ameggaru, ar i ɣa nerni tamerniwt tameggarut n prulitariya « Ad tɛic tagrawla tasusyalt tagraɣlant

Di kutber, alaḥsab takalendrit tarusit, niɣ di nufember, ɣer-neɣ, mani temsar tagrawla tameqqrant tis tnayen. Lḥukuma n kudkud ɛad teḍɛec bezzaf, wer tersi ca. Nqelben x-asen isuviyatiyen ibulucvikiyen i yeksin adabu.

Lynin netta i yellan d amɣar n ukungris amezwaru agraɣlan n icuyuɛiyen. 1919

Iwweḍ Lyinin ɣer uwettas-nnes amezwaru zeg yinaw-nnes, wenni n wafra, zegga issufeɣ Arusiya zeg umenɣi amaḍlan amezwaru s temyaqqant (traité) n Brest-Litovsk.

Maca afra ttuɣa-t d marur (mirage) waha, minzi awerni i tegrawla n Ktuber, mcumbbken irusiyen jer-asen. Zeg ijjen uɣezdis jar Lɛesker azeggʷaɣ n ibulcuvikiyen d unhezzi acemlal i yesmunen imeḥḍayen, ilibiraliyen d isusyaliten-nniḍen.

D ijjen umseksi i d-yejjin aṭṭas n imettinen awern-as, mani ibulcuvikiyen nɣin tsar Nikulas II d twacunt-nnes. Casanova yettwala belli amseksi d aɛeffan aṭṭas:

«Tnayen n iɣezdisa n umseksi-ya sxedmen aṭṭas n ddenf, la lɛesker i d-yekkin zi testarit la ibulcuvikiyen. D ijjen ddenf maci kuntra i iseyyasen-nneɣni d iwdan i wer kid-sen ittemsisin ca di tedyulujit waha, maca kuntra i ifellaḥen umi ksin lɣillet-nnsen wcin-tt i lɛesker azeggʷaɣ, ɛawed ddenf kuntra i imezdaɣ-nneɣni i ttuɣa wer yellin ca d Irusiyen nican»

Iqqar Lyinin x ddenf-a i yettwaggen ila uɣil zzag-s, minzi netta d abrid ḥuma ad sqesḥen ddewla-nnsen tamaynut. Ca n tseḍmiwin-nniḍen min xef ggin ddenf ttuɣa-ten ameknaw imussnawen n teglizt turṭudukest tarusit.

Ɣer umeggaru qaɛ d lɛesker azeggʷaɣ d netta yewwin girra-ya uca tettwagg tamunt tasuvyatit deg useggʷas n 1922 d Lyinin x uzellif-nnes. Maca Lyinin wer iqqim d amɣar mɣar ijjen useggʷas, minzi yeggur ad yemmet di yennayer n 1924.

Maca imuzayen qqaren ila ɣer-s lweqt ḥuma ad issers macina n ddenf min xef ikemmel Joseph Staline.

Imelyunen n yewdan i yeḥḍaren i legnazet-nnes deg wazzareg azeggʷaɣ di Musku. Ḥennṭen arrimet-nnes, amenni i teqqim ar ass-a. Iseggusa imeggura din iwdan qqaren belli yus-d wakud ḥima ad t-meḍlen.

Ijjen tcuyuɛit d “tagraɣlant”.

Maḥend a nsala, din ijjen upuntu wis tlata maḥend a nefhem taysi n Lyinin: ila ixes ad yegg zi tegrawla tasusyalt d ijjen tɣawsa d tamaḍlant.

Ixess ɣir a nenḍar tiṭṭawin x min inna d ameggaru deg yinaw-nnes: « Ad tɛic tagrawla tasusyalt tagraɣlant»

A nessekti belli tasertit n Lyinin tebna x tmarksit. Umi Marx d Engles fekkren di tdiktaturit n uprullitarya, nitni fekkren ddegg-a i ijjen tmurt i yegmin ameknaw Aliman maci i ijjen n tmurt ɛad aqqa-tt ɣer deffer ameknaw Arusiya.

Maca Lyinin ttuɣa wer yettwili ca manaya ila d amxumbel, minzi ɣer-s netta tagrawla tarusit yallah d surif amezwaru n tegrawla tasusyalt n umaḍal mani awettas-nnes ixess tagrawla-ya ad taweḍ merra timura i yegmin.

Deg yiger-a, Lyinin d ca n imariksiyen-nniḍen n umaḍal ḍelqen i “Tagraɣlant tis tlata”, ittwassnen s yisem n “Tacuyuɛit tagraɣlant“, deg useggʷas n 1919. S uyenni, zeg wakud-a, dewlen iwdan-a ttwassnen s yisem n “icuyuɛiyen”.

Maca tacuyuɛit wer tiweḍ ɣer mani deg iseggusa-nni. “Ila xsen ad ssifḍen tacuyuɛit deg iseggusa n 18, 19 d 20 mani ggin tizemmar ad ggen manayenni deg uliman, nnemsa d Hungariya. Maca tamurt-a tameggarut min di imsar leḥkam-a ca n cchurat x ufus n Bla Kun. “ D aya i yeqqar Casanova.

S tidett Lyinin wer iwwiḍ ca ɣer min ixes deg wakud-nnes, maca d netta issersen ddsas n tmunt tasuvyatit: d ijjen jjehd d ameqqran i ɣa yeqqimen yedder 70 n iseggusa i d ɣa asen.

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