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Lexmis 30 Mayyu 2024

Asefsi Asimyuti allasan i tsentit n wungal “Jar tecri d weṭṭu”

Yura-t : Soufian DARRAZ

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ASEFSI ASIMYUTI ALLASAN

I TSENTIT N WUNGAL «JAR TECRI D WEṬṬU»

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TASTUT

Tasimyutit ɣer imerzuten d iger d amassan, asntel-nnes d taɣuri i tfucay. Tafucayt ɣer Charles Sanders PEIRCE d qaɛ timeslayin i ikessin ansa n cra tmeslayin-nniḍen, kessint anamek-nsent, ttuɣa-tt d tafucayt tagwmmayt niɣ d taragwmmayt, d tagamant niɣ d tamgurant. Maca, ɣer Umberto ECO asentel n tsimyutit wer yelli ca d tafucayt, netta d asɣen asimyuti, ittwekkez deg ubrid-a xef umesniles adanmarki Louis HJELMSLEV.

Teqqen tsimyutit aked umirikanu Ch.S.PEIRCE s udlis-nnes «Tira xef tfucayt /Ecrits sur le signe», i yellan d tinnawin n PEIRCE i ismunen ɣer wern i tmennawt-nnes, issers dag-s ilugan, yerri-tt-d tisila n tɣuriwin tinefganin s umata. Deg wakud-a i di tuɣa yesnaya PEIRCE tazurt-a timiẓiṛt, yiwi-dd umesnils aswiṣri Ferdinand De SAUSSURE  turda n tillit i yijjt n tmassant-nniḍen, yewca-as aremmus: Tasimyulujit, i ɣa yilin d tagezzumt zi teklisent tamatut/psychologie générale, ad yegg tiɣuriwin xef qaɛ tifucay tinamkanin i wer itteggen tiɣuriwin tisnilsin mɣer xef tgwmmayin zzag-sent, sminzi tettawyi-tt aṭṭaṣ deg yiles. S uya, ad tili tasnilest s manaaya di tmassant temɣer tettlaɣan-as tasimyulujit.

Ggudyent tiɣarasin tiẓirtin tisimyutitin, ẓlint tizurtin-nnes xef yiger n tussniwin i ked tedder tussna-ya, teksi zzag-sent mamek zzag-s ksint, nzemmer ad nessiwel xef tsimyutit tamṣawaḍt ɣer Eric BUYSSENS Luis Jorge PRIETO d Georges MOUNIN, d tsimyulujit tasnamkant ɣer Roland BARTHES , d tsimyutit tadelsant ɣer uṭalyanu Umberto ECO d yenniḍen, d tsimyutit tamwalant/visuelle, d tsimyulujit n unuɣen isdukkam, d tenmel n Pariz tasimyutit (tasimyutit tallasant) akd Algirdas Julien GREIMAS d imreddaf-nnes: Joseph COURTÉS, Jean-Marie FLOCH d Jacques FANTANILLE d yenneḍni. (Lɛabed, 2010)

Tegma tiẓiṛt tasimyulujit tallasant/Sémiotique narrative aked umersi-nnes A.J.GREIMAS deg udlis «DEG UNAMEK/DU SENSE» (1970) d «DEG UNAMEK II/DU SENSE II» (1982) d imawalen isimyutiten i yegga s uswizi aked umeḥḍar-nnes J.COURTS.

Tettwassen taɣarast-a tamassant s tinmel tafranṣist (Tinmel n Pariz tasimyutit), tegga tazurt-nnes tiẓiṛt zi tenfust/mythe d tellast tamednant, s uwekkez xef twuriVladimir PROPP  «Tamuṛfulujit n tenfust/Morphologie du conte », d ussikel/Rattraper n Claude LEVISTRAUS … atg. Tennurẓem tinmel ɣer wern i mana-aya xef yigran imassanen-nniḍen, am tasimyutit tanneɣzelt/sémiotique des passions aked J.FONTANILLE … atg, d mana-aya i yessegman tiẓiṛt tasimyutit tallasant, terra-tt d aqwer yerebbu iḍṛiṣen ɣersen lxezrat d tinamunin d tisertanin d iseɣnan. (GREIMAS, 1970, p.259)

Taɣarast-a taneggarut, i ɣer neksi ḥuma ad nessefsi tasentit n wungal «JAR TACRI D WEṬṬU» i yura Hassan BANHAKEIA, s udwal ula ɣer tɣarasin tisimyutitin nniḍn, s wutkal xef tsimyutit n GREIMAS, i rezzun xef unuɣ n tesnamekt di qaɛ inawen allasanen ḥuma ad awḍen ɣer unamk. 

ABṬṬU N UḌṚIṢ ALLASAN

Abeṭṭu n wuḍṛiṣ d tameggit n bezzez di tɣarast tasimyutit tallasant, abeṭṭu d netta i daneɣ- ittejjan ad nermes aḍṛiṣ d yinumak-nnes, mkul agezzum allasan izemmer ad yili d tullist s iman-nnes, mamek izemmer ad tadef di tullis tameqqrant. Ɣer GREIMAS, abṭṭu n wuḍṛiṣ yeqqen s isebdad/Normes, zzag-sen: Asayrar/Espace deg wuḍṛiṣ, ijdilen/Thems mleddafen aked tikli n yinaw deg wuḍṛiṣ, isgiren inawn am: Amyakud, amsayrar, tuskiwt n iwriken, d qaɛ min i itticen tfawt i wesnamek n yinaw, ittejja adriz n unamek i ɣa yewcen asnay n usnamek i wuḍṛiṣ.

Deg usefser-a, ad negg tawuri xef tgezzumt tanurzemt (tasentit n wungal):

Am tnuṛzemt i wungal, amaru yistiy ad as-yewcc azwel «Jar tfawt d tallast», attaɣ ixes ad yini aqqa mkul ma yufa uwrik ammas cra n tfawet, ad tedwel d tallest xaf-s. Mamek ɣa nẓer di temsirin n wellas.

Aṛẓam-a i ygga umaru i wellas-nnes, itticc-aneɣ-dd yijj n uswingem xef taqsuḥi d lallaɣ i yellan di tira-nnes, itticc-anɣ-dd timulay i temsirin i yekkin xef uwrik aṣaḍ, timsirin i dd yettmanen cqant, ccurent s imenɣan d wezlan d idammen d tilellit i das-ittwakksen, jjin-t ad yessittem ɛlik wer dd ilul qaɛ di tudert-a:  

« Mri ufiɣ ad tili war d luleɣ di tudart mani ddareɣ jar wuzzal d uẓilleẓ, mani ura d ijj war yeggwar ad ac yini: “Csi ussan nnec, gg zzaysen min texsed!» (T.5),

« jjin ayi war qqneɣ tiṭṭawin ass awarn i wass. War ufiɣ ula d ijj n wass n yewdan, ɣar ussan n yiṭṭan…» (T.6),

« Deg umuddu inu, idammen manis mma ttcurcuren…» (T.7)

Zeg yezririgen imezwura, isseskan ɣer min ɣa naff d timsirin deg ugensu n wungal, «Mri tuɣa sneɣ ad wḍiɣ deg ugemgam n Uṛumi, ad tili war ttekkeɣ zi tmurt ɣar tenneḍni…» (T.5), ittban aqqa ad naff di min dd yegguren deg wellas, awrik aṣaḍ ad yegg amuddu jar waṭṭaṣ n tmura n yiṛumiyen zdat ma ad yiṣer di Buɣemɣam-nnsen. Mayemmi n umuddu-ya, ittban-dd deg yizririgen-a:

«… laẓ ineqq, mani aɣrum d watay … Ayt n ddcaṛ ggin aqeṭṭuṣ, ameẓẓyan ameqqṛan d tazra, ɣar umcubbec n baṛṛa, uyaren d iserdas war ttinin “ah”, …Ra necc tuɣa arezzuɣ agra ḥuma war ttmetiɣ sadu bu tsila n tḍuft.» (T.6).

Isseskan umaru, di tasna-ya tamezwarut lebda, aqqa wungal-a d tarezzut xef yiman d tmagit. Mamek ixezzer ɣer tudert am anaẓer, ittini xef wenn i yeṣṣeṛsen lesnaḥ, yemmut:

« … ittman ayi d, ɛad war luleɣ am yinneḍni. Ma d tudart niɣ d cra nniḍen i kessiɣ d ussan? Wenni umi yeqqim ijj n wass, yemmut…Da, ttseqsiɣ, min umi ass a? Ttseqsiɣ, xseɣ ad ssneɣ mayemmi war ufiɣ ɛad iman inu. » (T.5)

 Amaru, iruḥ aɣilin deg usidef-a i yegga i wengal-a, yewca-neɣ-dd ula d yiwriken ixataren i ɣa naff deg ugensu-nnes, zzag-sen yenn i ɣa t-yejjn deg uzzyen n wubrid (mmuten deg yimenɣan niɣ wuddren), dag-sen yenn i kid-s yuyuren deg wubrid: 

« … imanen nsen ttasen d jar tiṭṭawin inu. Ḥeddu war yeṣqaṛ, Sidal yeddar dayi yessmuymen min ittwala, Butserquḥt yeqqim dayi, Mimun yeḍfaṛ ayi » (T.6).

Qaɛ timura i xef yekka waṣaḍ deg umuddu-nnes, idar-itnt-id di tnurzemt n wungal.

« u dac ɣa yeslen? Iṛumiyen, jar Yifusiyen d Yiẓelmaḍen, d Bni Uṛu ssnen min dayneɣ ggin: neccin d iserdas sembra watig i wass a d yiḍennaḍ. Mecḥal uzzleɣ xef tesɣart nsen, laɣan d xafi, mmuteɣ xafsen, rexxu sarsen ayi 12 mitru sadu yiḍaṛen nsen. …» (T.7).

Mamek i dd-smanan yizririgen-a ula d tageṛẓawt n uwrik aṣaḍ xef umuddu-ya i yegga d umenɣi sadu yisem n midden.

TUSKIWT TASIMYUTIKT TALLASANT

AFRḌIS ALLASAN ATIWAN

Xef uswir n tuskiwt timṛwit/Actantiel, ittic weḍṛiṣ tasddiyt n waddadn/Etats d isnflal/Transformations, tettjja GREIMAS ittini aqqa tamallasant/Narrativité tettili di qaɛ inegraw isnamkanen, tettqqen addaden ɣer tilit/Etre, mamek i ddakwalen isneflal ɣer tigawt d tummanit/Paraitre.

Asenfel ittawi-dd sin n igwmmay msebḍan: agwmmay n waddad/Enonce d’état i yettkalen xef usɣun jar tanimant/Sujet d tɣawsa/Objet, nettmiter-it am I-Ɣ, d ugwmmay n tigawt/Enonce de faire, teqqen ɣer usenfel deg usɣun-a, s umyawaḍ/Conjonction niɣ s unigri/Disjonction, s uya nettayem-dd sin n igwmmay i waddad:

– Agwmmi n waddad amyawaḍ: ittili amwuri n tnimant yeqqen aked umwuri n tɣawsa, nesseskan ɣer umyawaḍ-a s tmitert U,   W.I U W.Ɣ.

– Agwmmi n waddad anigraw: ittili amwuri n tnimant yennigra xef umwuri n tɣawsa, nesseskan ɣer unigri-a s tmitert ∩,    W.I  W.Ɣ.

Agwmmay n tigawt niɣ asenfel, d amutti zeg waddad ɣer waddad nniḍn, nettaf snat n telɣawin i wsenfel:

– Asenfel amyawaḍ: amutti zeg waddad anigraw ɣer waddad amyawaḍ,    

W.I ∩ W.Ɣ  ->  W.I U W.Ɣ.

– Asenfel anigraw: amutti zeg waddad amyawaḍ ɣer waddad anigraw,    

W.I U W.Ɣ ->  W.I ∩ W.Ɣ.

Amseḍfer-a n waddadn d isenfal, yewca-as GREIMAS assaɣ: Aɣawas amallas/programme narratif, yeqqen s tesɣunt W.I-W.Ɣ, d isenfal nnes timawaḍin d tinigrawin. S uya, mala din addad d usenfel, aqqa tanimant tumhalt/Sujet opérateur tzemmer ad tili:

– Tanimant n waddad: Tettili deg umyawaḍ niɣ anigri aked tɣawsa n wazal/objet-valeur, tasɣunt W.I-W.Ɣ tetteg aẓlay i ugwmmay n waddad niɣ tanimant n waddad.

– Tanimant n tigawt (I.G): Asenfel ittili s umyawaḍ niɣ s unigri, nettmater i tnimant n tigawt s twaneɣt-a tamatut:

Amedya:        I.G = { (WI ∩ WƔ) ®  (WI U WƔ) }

Itettr asenfel-a timeggi/performance, ḥuma ad yaweḍ umeggay n tmeggit ɣer usenfel, ixes ad-as yewcc afus ijj n umwuri nniḍen am amessifeḍ/destinateur. ɣer wern i manaya, d bezzez xef umwuri n tnimant ad ɣers yili tizemmer ḥuma ad yegg tigawt, yessmun-iten-tt GREIMAS di kkuẓ: azuccl n tigawt/devoir faire d tzemmert xef tigawt/pouvoir faire d tussna i tigawt/savoir faire d tmexsa i tigawt/vouloir faire

TAZURT TAMWURINT/SCHÉMA ACTANCIEL TANGRAWT

(Coutes,1976, pp. 64-68).

Ad nexzer ɣer tazurt-a am tyuyawin:

– Amessifeḍ/Wiɣer-ittwasifeḍ (Agejdi amsiweḍ): tilalt n umessifeḍ (Laẓẓ), ad yejj amwuri n tnimant ad yaff wiɣer-ittwasifeḍ (Anjam) xef tebridt n usekkin (Amuddu).

– Tanimant/taɣawsa (Agejdi n tmexsa): Tanimant (Aṣaḍ/warisem) trezzu ad tegg taɣawsa (Amuddu), ittili mana-aya awern ulɣad/Persuasion n umessifeḍ i wiɣer-ittwasifeḍ.

– Asemwizi/anemgal (amseksi): Nettaf imwura inemgalen ujaren imwuren isemwizan deg uḍṛiṣ, tesbedda tikli n umwuri n tnimant di trezzut nnes xef tɣawsa, «Mri tuɣa sneɣ ad wḍiɣ deg ugemgam n Uṛumi, ad tili war ttekkeɣ zi tmurt ɣar tenneḍni…» (T.5).

TAZURT TAMWURINT/SCHÉMA ACTANCIEL TIMGGIT

Tazurt tamwurint tanegrawt d tuskiwt wer nzemmer ad nesmutti, mɣer s tuskiwt timeggit s yijjt n tebridt dags kkuẓ n iɣezdisa:

– Agam/Manipulation (Tigawt n tigawt, afaser)

– Tazemmart/Compétence (Tilit n tigawt)  

– Imeggi/Performance (Tigawt i tilit)

– Asyafa/Sanction (Tilitin n tilit, astal)

Awrik aṣaḍ yessenta yennigra xef tɣawsa (amuddu), mamek isala s tgeṛẓawt xef umuddu-ya di tegzzumt tameggarut di tnurzemt n wungal-a, nzemmer ad nawi mana-aya am usayes amallas/programme narratif  (SA):

SA = { (IAnbraz ∩ ƔAmuddu) ®  (IAnbraz ∩ ƔAmuddu) }

AFERḌIS ALLASAN I YULLƔEN

Amutti zi tmeggitin ɣer tesnayt tallasant tatiwant, ittili s tigawt tamesniyt. Tigawt tittili s umutti zi tmeggitin ullɣent ccurent s usnamek ɣer tigawt tetteḥdaja ameggay zi tefras nnes +Afgan, mamek nettaf asidef n tigawt tasnayt tettawi-dd ijj n uremmus nniḍen, d agwmmay amallas i xef nessiwl zdat.

Tuskiwt-a tamezrayt tanemgalt, nzemmer ad tt-idd-nawi am umekkuẓ asimyuti/carré sémiotique, i dd-yesskanen iferdisn isnamkan ḥuma ad yaṛu ijj n weɣrud asnamkan:

                                                 

Tuskiwt tasnamkant tegga am tizdayin, zeg umsasa n umekkuẓ asimyuti nettraḥ zi tizdayin tisnamkanin ɣer timegga timesniyin. S uya, wer nzemmer ad nraḥ zi laẓẓ ɣer userdes mɣr mala nekka xef ara-laẓẓ: 

 Ula d tazurt tanabaḍt/Schema veridictoire tettwasemras s waṭṭas, tesseskan tuzlet/Opposition i din jar tilit/être d tummanit/paraître ḥuma ad tettwaf tidet/azgal. D amesnils J.COURTÉS (1936) i yessegman tiẓiṛt-a deg udlis nnes “Asefsi asimyuti i yinaw/Analyse sémiotique du discours”:

TAMGGARUT

Tusa-dd tawuri-ya di tebridt n usefsi n yinaw d tɣuri deg uḍṛiṣ amaziɣ, nesta ad negg tawuri nneɣ xef uḍṛiṣ “Jar tfawt d tallest” i dd-yusin deg wungal n umaru Ḥ.BENHAKEIA “JAT TECRI D WEṬṬU”. Nessniy asefsi i wanaw-a xef tsedwelt d tiẓiṛt, tiẓiṛt tasimyutit tallasant, s usmuni n iremmusen i xef ttetkala tiẓiṛt-a. s uya, tina d tizemmer n usemres i tɣarast tasimyutit deg usefsi n yinaw amaziɣ, d asittem ad taff tiweḍ ad tḥada cwayt zi tɣuriwin n uzɣan, mamek tettɣima d amnus n ureddef i tebridt tasimyutit deg uzɣan n uḍṛiṣ amaziɣ s min terbu d abɣur.

TABIBLYUGRAFIT

            UNGAL AGRIW

– BENƐQIYA, Ḥ. (2020) . Jar tecri d weṭṭu. Wjjda: Ccix Ḥassan.

            IMAWALN

– AMEUR,M. D yenniḍen. Dictionnaire général de la langue amazighe, Lmeɣrib: IRCAM.

– BENƐQIYA, Ḥ. (2021) . AMAWAL ARIFI N USUƔEL. Wejjda: Ccix Ḥassan.

– BOUAMARA,K. (2007) . Amawal n tunuɣin n tesnukyest. Tizi wezzu: HCA.

            IDLLISN

– COUTES,J. (1976). Introduction à la sémiotique narrative et discursive. Paris: Ed Hachette.

– GREIMAS,A,J. (1970) . Du Sens. Paris: Ed Seuil.

– KURDI, M, Z. (2018) . Traitement automatique des langues et linguistique informatique. Vol. 2. Sémantique, discours et applications. Sciences cognitives. Londres: ISTE Éditions, 323 p.

            ISITN

– Elodie mielczareck. Le carré sémiotique. Ittwaxzer: 03/01/2023, https://vu.fr/oBBn.

– LƐABED, A,M. (2010). التحليل السميائي السردي. Ittwari: 25/09/2010, Ittwaxzer: 03/01/2023, https://vu.fr/NyhF .

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