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Larbeɛ 22 Mayyu 2024

Asɣel abuyi deg wammud n “deg webrid ɣar tfawt” n Ḥasan Buԑezzati (1/2)

Sufyan Lhani

Berra i tɣuri:

Tiɣuri-ya i nga i tmeslayt n wuḍuf n tqessisin n uzlawi Ḥasan Buεezzati, nezgur ɣar ufesser-ines gi teẓrigt tamezgarut n wammud-ines “deg webrid ɣar tfawt” ig ifser g useggʷas n 2015.

Tiɣuri-ya beddlent dag-s waṭṭaṣ n tmeslayin ig iqqnen ɣar yermawen i nessexdam assa s yiremmusen d uxezzer seggden, ad nerni ɣur-sent abeddel n uxezzer-nneɣ ɣar waṭṭas n tmeslayin ig iqqnen ɣar tsenmarra (Orthographe) d tjerumt d temsislit d tsenmeslit d tesnafirt (Syllabologie) d tesnesɣelt (Métricologie).

Ur da neṭṭif araq ḥuma ad as-nini i umeɣri min ibeddlen qqaε gi tɣuri-ya jar teẓrigt-ines tamezgarut d teẓrigt-a n lux i das-dd-netticc ad iɣer, niɣ ad as-nini min ibeddlen g uxezzer- nneɣ ɣar tmeslayin n usentel-a, maca εad ad aneɣ-iɣer umeɣri axezzer-nneɣ ɣar marra timeslayin a xmi i dd ɣa nessufeɣ aseddi-nneɣ n temsirin n tesnilest tarifit (Anagraw anilas n tmaziɣt n Arif [10 n tenfulin]) i nga s tmaziɣt, d tɣuri-nneɣ i nga s teεrabt adu n uzwel “Tasnesɣelt n tedyazt tamaziɣt tarifit; tiɣawsiwin timiẓiṛin – tinebridin – tusnisin” (عروض الشعر الأمازيغي الريفي: قضايا نظرية ومنهجية وتطبيقية).

Tasezgurt:

Wami dayi-itter umeddukel-inu “Ḥasan Buԑezzati” ad as-ggeɣ asegged n tira d teɣri i tumayt n wammud-ines “deg webrid ɣar tfawt”, qebleɣ tameslayt n usegged n tira s tiṭṭawin qqnent, maca tameslayt n teɣri i tumayt-ines ufiɣ-tt maknaw d ict temhelt (opération) teqseḥ xafi, minzi wami udfeɣ ad geɣ ula d necc tasɣart-inu s tira deg yiger-a, giɣ xaf-s ur tteggeɣ tiɣri i wammud n ci n ḥedd nneɣni, minzi azlawi ig ittazzlen ad igg tiɣri i wammuden n yezlawiyen-nneɣni, niɣ azlawi ig ittazzlen ad yini qa ixess-as i uzlawi ad as igg amya d wamyin, ttwaliɣ-t d azaɣan iccat ixeṭṭa.

Maca, wami ɣa saliɣ asegged n tira n wammud, ufiɣ maknaw “Ḥasan Buԑezzati” ila isnuffer xafi ict tmeslayt drus waha i das-itterran taynit deg yiger n uzɣan aseklan arifi, tameslayt-a teqqen ɣar usɣel abuyi umi iwca uzlawi ijj uraq d ameqqran gi tqessisin n wammud.

Tẓa d mraw (19) n tqessisin zi simraw (20) i dag-s illan deg wammud mmersent marra idsent x usɣel abuyi, mala nejja taqessist n “D imaziɣen” i war immersen weḥḥdes x usɣel- a, maknaw ixes ad aneɣ-yini qa asɣel n tqessist-a ixess ad ɣur-s tili tilelli am nettat am tlelli miz ttwassnen Yimaziɣen d ilellan.

S uya, nzemmer ad nini qa azlawi “Ḥasan Buԑezzati” yixḍar ad yili d ijj zeg yezlawiyen itraren ig iḍefren abrid n tqessist ig immersen x usɣel amensay n tedyazt n Arif, uxa ad yili usɣel abuyi maknaw d tifrezt tanaẓurt tamabant n wammud.

Tiqessisin-a i dd-yusin mmersent ԑlayen qqaԑ x usɣel abuyi, jjint-ay ad ɣur-sent beddeɣ aṭṭas n wakud, ad asent-ԑawdeɣ tiɣri s llɣa d uɣennej aṭṭas n twalatin. Ijja-ay usɣel-nsent ad qqimeɣ xerrseɣ deg wanaw n teɣri i das ɣa ggeɣ i wammud, zeg uɣezdis n wuḍuf-inu i yizerfan n usɣel n Arif d tɣuni-ines tameqqrant ɣar yilugan n kra n yeswiren n tutlayt am tjerrumt d tsenmarra d temsislit d tsenmeslit d tesnafirt d tesnesɣelt.

S uya, tiɣri-inu i wammud ad tili maknaw d tamrarut x yiseqsan a i dd-igguren: min iԑna usɣel abuyi? mux das-nettegg nettessen ila taqessist temmers x usɣel abuyi?

I. Asɣel abuyi: asenmel d tefraz.

Qqareɣ “asɣel abuyi” i usɣel mix ittemrusa usnay amensay n tseddarin n yezlan d tqessisin n Arif. Afris n “abuyi”, ittedwal ɣar usnay mix ttemrusant tseddarin n tedyazt tameɣnajt tamensayt, uxa idwel, ag umuti n tedyazt zi tmiwant ɣar tmirayt, maknaw d asɣel i ḍeffrent tqessisin n kra n wammuden gi tmirayt.

Irem-a (asɣel abuyi), izgur isemma – Mimun Lwalid (2001) s “التفعيلة المعروفة في الريف، (أيارالا يارل، أيا رالا بويا)” (1) i das-nessuɣel gi tmaziɣt ɣar “asnay ig ittwassnen g Arif s (Aya ralla ya ral, aya ralla buya)”(2), iḍefr-it-id Muṣṭafa Buziyyani (2002) ig isxedmen irem n “rmizan anԑaci” (asɣel bu 12 n tifar) d yirem “rmizan n Buya“(3); irem-a uddis aneggaru d netta i rriɣ ɣar “asɣel abuyi” ḥuma ad yugur ag tesniremt i ssexdameɣ gi tɣuriwin i tteggeɣ s tmaziɣt x tedyazt tarifit. Irem-a yuwi-t-id Muṣṭafa Buziyyani (2002) zeg usnay n yezlan “Ay a ralla ya ral, ay a ralla buya” ig itwaqqaren deg wakud n usneflel anedyaz-ameɣnaj amensay ḥuma ad zag-s ssenyen izli ɣar wumas i xaf-s dd ɣa yasen niɣ ḥuma ad zag-s ṭṭfen asɣel n yezlan…

Asnay n “Ay a ralla ya ral, ay a ralla buya”, ila tteggen-t twetmin deg yezlan n arrayes d yimedyazen deg yiɣennijen-nsen, ttsentant zg-s asneflel-nsen, zi ssinni srusan-t maknaw d agmir ig iferrzen izli x wenneɣni.

Asɣel abuyi, immers x 12 n tifar gi kul taseddart, kul taseddart ɣur-s sin n yefyiren, uxa kul afyir ittemrusa x 6 n tifar. Tifar-a, d netnint ig illan d asnay asnesɣal mix ttemrusan wawalen n tedyazt tarifit tamensayt.

Zi min nenna iԑda, qa tizlawiyin d yezlawiyen n Arif ila ttafen(t) ixf nsen(t) qqnen(t) ɣar usɣel n usnay asnesɣal s wadday:

« Aya ralla ya ral,

Aya ralla buya ».

Asnay a ittedwal ag ubeṭṭi-ines asnesɣal d:

[ A / ya / ral / la / ya / ral /,

a / ya / ral / la / bu / ya ].

S ubeṭṭi-ya asnesɣal i nga i usnay anedyaz amensay, nettaf 12 n tifar gi  kul taseddart, 6 gi kul afyir zi sin n yefyiren n tseddart, tifar-a n usnay d netnint mix ittemrusa usɣel abuyi.

II. Ilugan i usufeɣ n usɣel abuyi zi tedyazt.

Tutlayt tamaziɣt ɣur-s aṭṭas n tumanin tisnesɣalin qqnent ɣar tedyazt tarifit, sseqsiḥent gi ci n twalatin x umeɣri n tedyazt ad asent-iṭṭef asɣel i tseddarin-ines. Taqsuḥi-ya n wuḍuf n usɣel tettili aṭṭas xmi tettemsagar ci tergalt ag tergalin nneɣni, d ci n teɣrayt ag teɣrayt- nneɣni, niɣ xmi ttemseḍfaren zi kṛaṭ n tergalin sennej, uxa ittili uɣir x umeɣri ad issen man tabridt ig issufuɣen ɣar usegged i tumanin-a tisnesɣalin-tinetlayin.

Abrid ɣar tmussni n usegged i tumanin-a, isbezzez xafi ad reẓmeɣ tawwurt-a ḥuma ad as- sserseɣ, i tesnesɣelt tarifit, ilugan i ɣa izemren ad ssiwḍen ameɣri ɣar wuḍuf n usɣel n tqessisin d yezlan, ad issen zegsen tibridin ig ittawin ɣar usegged ameddad n tmussni n mux ixeddem usɣel abuyi, d ma mmersent tqessisin x usnay-ines asnesɣal.

G usati-ya, ad sserseɣ kṛaḍ n yilugan i ttwaliɣ ad as-mlen i umeɣri min iqqnen ɣar tlalayt n tqessist tarifit, d tmeslayin tisnesɣalin iqqnen ɣar yilugan inejrumen n tmaziɣt tamirayt.

1. Alugen amezgaru: ict tfirt = ict teɣrayt.

Tasnesɣelt n Tmaziɣt n Arif, am nettat am temsislit tarifit, tettbedda x teɣrayt i tettwala d aԑeqqa n tfirt. S uya, taɣrayt tettili maknaw d aԑeqqa adeslan miz nzemmer ad nessen tifar n twinest tanedyazt, uxa tettili tmussni n wuṭṭun n tifar maknaw d tadesla n tmusni n wuṭṭun n teɣrayin i dages gi kul afyir. Ad nini s uzegzel qa: ict tfirt = ict teɣrayt.

Alugen-a, ugmeɣ-t-id zi temsirin timesdawin i daneɣ-iga uselmad-nneɣ Mimun Ḥemdawi x tfirt n Tmaziɣt n Arif, timsirin-nni mindeg iqqim iqqar-aneɣ, i necnin imeḥḍaṛen-ines, qa “une syllabe = une voyelle” (ict tfirt = ict teɣrayt) melmi ma ikka ad issiḍen tifar n yiferdisen inmawalen n Tmaziɣt n Arif.

Gi manaya, ɣur-neɣ amedya gi tqessist n “Ddhar Ubarran”:

« Aya Ddhar Ubarran,

Ay imar ameqqran.. ».

Nzemmer ad nqewwer uṭṭun n teɣrayin n tifar n tseddart s tmamekt a s wadday:

« (A)y(a) Ddh(a)r (U)b(a)rr(a)n,

(A)y (i)m(a)r (a)m(e)qqr(a)n ».

Mala nessiḍen mecḥal i dag-s n teɣrayin g umedya i dd-neksi zi tqessist n “Ddhar Ubarran”, aqa nettaf 6 n teɣrayin g ufyir amezgaru, d 6 g ufyir wis sin, tticcen-aneɣ-dd 12 n teɣrayin i daneɣ-dd-itticcen ula d netnint 12 n tifar mix immers usɣel abuyi, uxa nettessen ila taseddart-a temmers x usɣel abuyi.

G ulugen-a ɣur-neɣ aṭṭas n yimedyaten deg wammud, maca ad dd-nerni amedya-nneɣni i dd-neksi zi tqessist n “ad ariɣ taqessist”:

« Ad ariɣ taqessist,

Xef tafart ig icnan.. ».

Uṭṭun n teɣrayin n tifar n tseddart netta d amux dd-yusa s wadday:

« (A)d (a)r(i)ɣ t(a)q(e)ss(i)st,

X(e)f t(a)f(a)rt (i)g (i)cn(a)n.. ».

G umedya ya nettaf s usiḍen n teɣrayin: 6 n teɣrayin g ufyir amezgaru, d 6 g ufyir wis sin; tticcena-neɣ-dd 12 n teɣrayin i daneɣ-dd-itticcen 12 n tifar mig nettessen ila taseddart tanedyazt temmers x usɣel abuyi.

2. Alugen wis sin: amseḍfeṛ n yimeslan n yijj n wanaw.

Neẓṛa g ulugen amezgaru mux nzemmer ad nessen tifar n tseddarin n tqessist s tmusni nneɣ i wuṭṭun n teɣrayin nsent, uxa neẓra mux ttemsebḍant tifar n usɣel abuyi x 6 gi kul afyir.

Maca gi ci n twalatin nettaf amseḍfer n snat n teɣrayin, d umseḍfer n snat n tergalin g umezgaru n ufyir, niɣ amseḍfer n 3, 4 ar 5 n tergalin mindeg ur nettif jar-asent ci n teɣrayt iɣa ishewnen asefrez nsent.

Amseḍfer a n yimeslan isseqsiḥ tiɣri d usegged n usɣel n tqessist x umeɣri d umeɣray d umerzu, s uya i dasen ɣa nessers kra n yilugan isnesɣalen i xaf-sen ɣa ishewnen tamussni n tumanin a d tmussni n mecḥal n tifar illan nican gi kul afyir niɣ taseddart.

Amseḍfer-a n yimeslan n yijj n wanaw, i war nettif gi tguri (aferdis anmawal) d ict, ittili xmi tettemsagar tguri ag tenneɣni niɣ aferdis anmawal ag yiferdisen nneɣni, uxa ufuɣ ɣar tmusni n mecḥal n tifar illan nican gi tseddarin tinedyazin isbezzaz x umeɣri ad yili issen mliḥ ilugan n yiger n tesnesɣelt ig iqqimen εad d iger amessuki gi tɣuriwin tiseklanin-tinetlayin timaziɣin n Arif.

Gi manaya, ad neṛẓem snat n tewwura i usehwen n tmusni n usɣel. Ict tewwurt i umseḍfeṛ n tergalin, tenneɣni i umseḍfeṛ n teɣrayin.

2.1. Amseḍfeṛ n tergalin.
2.1.1. Asenti n ufyir s snat n tergalin niɣ s tergalt tussayt.

Xmi i ttsenta ufyir s snat n tergalin msebḍant niɣ s tergalt tussayt, aqa tettili tikermin-as teɣrayt /e/ tennuffer.

Ur nzemmer ad naf gi tmaziɣt s umata, niɣ gi tqessist tarifit s wuslig, ci n telɣa tanejrumt ig ittsentan s snat n tergalin bla ma ad tili tezgur-itent-id, niɣ tebḍa jar-asent, ci n teɣrayt. Uxa mala nejja talɣa n kra n wanawen n umyag (am “ksi” d “rẓem” d “ddez” d “kkes”…atg.) d kra n yiferdisen inejrumen (am “xmi” d “zdat” d “sɣur”…atg.) d kra n yiseftiyen n umyag (am “txeddem” d “nsegged” d “ttɣennajen”…atg.) ig ittsentan s snat n tergalin niɣ s tergalt tussayt (consonne géminée), aqa nzemmer ad nini qa tafirt tamezgarut n telɣiwin nneɣni tettas-dd lebda s teɣrayt tban (am “segged” d “ejj” d “tamurt”…atg.).

S uya xmi nettaf taguri ig ittsentan s snat n tergalin niɣ s tergalt tussayt ag tergalt tafrart (ttɣennajen), ruxdennit tettili tennuffer teɣrayt /e/ zdat nsent.

G ulugen-a, nettaf amedya-ines gi tqessist n “Tatbirt”:

« Ṛaja’y ad am ɛawdeɣ

(s w)ul ad am iniɣ ».

G ufyir wis sin, nettaf taɣrayt /e/ tennuffer tikermin i “s wur”, uxa ittedwal gi tira tasnesɣalt d:

[Ṛaja’y ad am ɛawdeɣ

([e] s w)ul ad am iniɣ].

G umedya-ya, mala nessiḍen mecḥal illan n teɣrayin, aqa nettaf 6 n teɣrayin g ufyir amezgaru, d 6 nneɣni g ufyir wis sin, tticcen-aneɣ-dd 12 n tifar gi tseddart.

Timaynutin

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