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Lḥed 3 Mars 2024

Amseksi di tumast, amedya n unhezzi n Arrif: ijjen temladast adu tfawt n teṭyurit n wenɛam n Axel Honneth

Tira : Ḥamid Tuɛli

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Asarag-a wanita ad yili x “umseksi di tumast, s umedya Anhezzi n Arrif”. A dd-awiɣ deg-s axarres x unhezzi ya wanita s lexzrat n ufilusuf Aliman Axel Honneth ig yellan d ij n umussnaw/ameswingem i dd-ixelqen «Tiẓirt n umyakaz» (la théorie de la reconnaissance), netta s imant-nnes ɛawed ij n seg igejda (tḥenya) n Tiẓirt n Wezɣan (la Théorie critique) n uɣerbaz n Frankfurt.

Anhezzi n Arrif d ijjen umussu d ameskan (contestation) d aɣerfan (populaire) iḍḍuqzen nnhar 28 Kṭuber n 2016 di Arrif, nnhar-nni umi ḥeryen Muḥsin Fikri deg ij n ukamyu n wefraḍ. Argaz-a wanita ttuɣa-t issaɣ izznuza iselman am waṭṭas n Irifyien i yeddren gi Arrif.

Anhezzi n Arrif yerẓem i triturikt n yinaw (rhétorique discursive), yessexdem imassen imaynuten. Iɛdel i isutar-nnes bac a ten-issek i ddewla niɣ i ixef n ddewla. Isutar-a qqnen ɣa min iḥwadj Arrif d min ttrajan Irifiyen. G wawal-a nhar-a ad dd-awiɣ ijen uxarres x unhezzi n Arrif maca s lexzrat n teṭyurit n wenɛam (nadariya n liɛtiraf) n Axel Honneth, qqareɣ ila anhezzi n Arrif d anhezzi n umseksi x tumast tarifiyt niɣ tanettit Tamaziɣt/timmuzɣa n Arrif.

Xḍareɣ aparadigem-a wanita n “Tiẓirt n wezɣan” (nnadariya nnaqdiya) i d-yewwi Axel Honneth bac ad mmleɣ mayemmi sɣuyyun niɣ ttuɣa syɣuyyun Irifiyen mebla a nettɛawad i wawal-nni i nennum n uɣrum waha d tdamsa d tsetratijiyet (axarres n Hobbes, d Machaivel) ihi war nzemmar a nini belli ikker-dd x tenɛacin d uɣrum am yenni illuẓen usafi ixis ad iqqim ittett waha. Nettaf ddsas n umseksi-ya gi lḥugra, gi tirmitin tiɣariwin tizdirin (les expériences morales négatives) niɣ irajiten n usteɛref min xef wer rḍin (les attentes de reconnaissance non satisfaites) i d-ittarun asinef, lḥugra, tikkest zi tmeẓra. Imenɣiten-a ttxisen ad ɛawden lebni i yiman n yewdan i ttuɣa yettwaḥgaren, ittwassinfen, ittwakkesen zi leḥsab bac ad dd-yerr izerfan i das-ittwakksen (restauration de soi dénigré).   

Irifiyen sɣuyyen, nnan « a lla, uhu i lḥugra », ssentan ijen unhezzi ittemnɣan x yikez (anɛam, la reconnaissance) d min iqqnen ɣar-s am : «tilelli, uddur/lkarama, taɣdemt tanamunt (justice sociale) ». Waxxa ssadafen imeɣnasen n Arrif d imezdaɣ-nnes isutar n tdamsa d wamun di tewriqin n isutar n unhezzi, manaya wer ittekkes ci lqima i yidles d tumast-nnsen minzi yina ɣar-sen ijjen umcan d ahimmi g min rezzun d min xisen ad ggen Irifiyen. Ittkenna rezzun tudert icnan d tudert s wuddur (lkarama), a mux iqqar Axel Honneth g tfilusuft-nnes tanamunt (social philosophy).

Ajemmuɛ n Ayt Biya awerni i wuḍuf n imɣaren n Lḥirak.

Ad ssiwleɣ g min dd-yusin x tmeslayt n umseksi x tumast di tuɣbayt n unhezzi n Arrif (amseksi x min ɛnan Irifiyen d umseksi-nnsen bac ad ɣar-sen tili tasɣart-nnsen.) Maca g umezwaru rad ssiwleɣ x min iɛna ukunsipet n umseksi xef yikez/amyakaz (le concept de la lutte pour la reconnaissance) d min t-iqqnen akd ukunsipt n tumast (identité). Ad mmleɣ ɛawed tirmitin tiɣariwin tizdirin iṭṭfen di tumast tarifiyt ig illan ɣer deffar i uḍḍuqqez n unhezzi n Arrif. Ɣer uneggaru a nẓer mamec igga wenhezzi-ya bac ad ibna tamentilt/taɣawsa n tumast n Arrif d mamec ismuna Irifiyen x ijen tesnamekt tamegrawt (sémantique collective) i yebna netta nnit.  

Asijji x ukunsipt n Yikez ɣer Axel Honneth

Nettaf iẓewran n ukunsipt n yikez (la reconnaissance) di tfilusuft n Hegel. Hegel iqqar belli amsawaḍ ittili jar tnayen n iwdan ittemsawalen itemsawaḍen x ddsas n min ittwaggen. Nettemsawaḍ x min iqqnen ɣer tmegga (niɣ tigawt) (relation pratique et dialogique).

Nettemsawaḍ ɛawed aked yenni/tenni war yellin ci d nnec niɣ d neccin. Amenɣi i d-ittlulen g imsawaḍen netta d ameggay (pratique), wer telli ca ḥa d ijjen tɣuni d tapistimulujiyt waha, iṭṭef ula di tmegga (it is not only an epistemologic relation but anchored in practice).

Hegel iqqar ɛawed belli ikez ibna x tekti (uxarres) belli iwdan aqa-ten kifkif. Mala wer din bu kif kif, amenɣi ad yili ar lmewt. Hegel isskan-d manaya, iyder-it g umenɣi jar umassiw d ismeɣ-nnes (le cas du maître et de l’esclave). Honneth Iksi-d ddegg-a n ukunsipt-a n liɛtiraf zi Hegel isseuffeɣ-d zzag-s tlata n wudmawen:

Udem amezwaru nettaf-it g bnadem d min itteḥadja am tayri niɣ timexsa/itteḥdaja ttiqet n yikez (Besoin de confiance). Wiss tnayen: azref (aḥtaji n uweqqar/ besoin de respect). Wiss tlata: d twiza (itticen azal i bnadem daxel n immegrawen mani ittedder).

Udmawen-a bnan qqaɛ x tikti n uzarug jar tisekʷfal imsebḍan n uṭunumiya (entre différents degrés d’autonomie personnelle)[1]. Issexdem Honneth aṭṭas n imassen i dd-yewwi zi tilawt niɣ tigawt: am tapsikanalist (la psychanalyse), ɣer tsusyulujit d uzref (droit) d umzeruy (l’histoire)[2]. Tamitudulujit i yessexdem twakenna aɛawed n tuska asebdad (la reconstruction normative). Ikessi-d min jarrben iwdan g tmetti (tirmit tanamunt/l’expérience sociale), ittxarras deg-s ulakṭer x lḥugra, d lbaṭel, d jar asteɛref i tteddren iwdan. Min t-itthimman g tɣuri-ya tanita i tegga i lḥugra ; ad aneɣ- issefhem belli amenɣi anamun (conflit social) iqqen ula d netta ɣer laggʷaj n tɣara (la dimsnion morale) (min iṭṭfen s tɣara niɣ ‘la moral’) (moral grammar of social conflicts).

Bandu n Arrif aked wenni n Tmazɣa, d ibanduten ittwaksin aṭṭas di tmeskanin n unhezzi n Arrif.

Iksi-d lqawaɛid-a bac ad issefhem mamec ḍḍuqquzn inhezziten ittafen iẓuran-nnsen niɣ tsibba-nnsen g wannar n « la morale » am lḥugra d jar « liɛtiraf d usseḥqer » (Voirol, 2009).Waxxa Axel Honneth ixarres g imussuten n tumast maca ittaf deg-sen amsaḍaf jar waṭṭas n laggʷajat (les dimensions) idelsanen (culturel), isertanen, idamsanen niɣ n tumast (Fraser, Honneth, 2003).[3].

Aseḥqar n Arrif iḥada tumast d tira [n rebbi] icerken, zzag-s i kkren imiren d ttajarib n tɣariwin tudrizin d umseksi x wenɛam d yikez.

Aḥray ittwaggen i Muḥsin Fikri igga ijen ttiqqet d ijen unakab n tɣara (choc moral) ig ireẓmen tawwurt i yijjen yinaw (discours) mani ɣa naf tsibba n waḥray-a wanita. D useqsi x mayemmi iwqeɛ min iwqɛen. Imeɣnasen aked Irifiyen icerken g unhezzi ssexdamen ‘Aḥray’ amacnaw ijen wawal bac ad sseknen min iwqeɛn i tumast tarifiyt. Maci waha d Muhsin Fikri ig itwaḥreyn maca ci n ḥajet tesmun irifiyen d min ɛnan. D manaya umi neqqar tumast irifiyen ig ittwaḥaryen. Iwdan marra i sseqsiɣ g twuri-ya i ggiɣ, qqaren belli nitni d irifiyen, macan d irifiyen iddren di jar asteɛref (ikez) ittegg udabu neɣ uwank n Lmerruk, Lmaxzen. Qqaren belli lmexzen aqqa-t mgal (contra) nnsen. Ddewla war tenɛim ci s min dd-uwin i wmezruy aɣelnaw (national or patriotic history) n Lmarruk. Twaṭaniyet n lmerruk tettwagg-as ijen tɣuri waha, ttwalan belli tajedjitt d ikabaren isertanen d nitni i d-ixelqen amussu n twaṭaniyt g wakud-nni n umenɣi mgal uḥewwas aspaynu d ufransis. Ci n wudem-nneɣni n imenɣi-ya ittwasinef rni x-as ittusatem s ci n yisamwen am tanezbayt n ledcur (lmuqawama lqarawiya) niɣ tanezbayt n tqebbal.

Min ggint tqebbal-a niɣ iwdan-a ur yewwiḍ aswir [zeɛma] n twaṭaniyet, s lmizan n yenni i yurin amezruy aɣelnaw niɣ amezruy awaṭaniy. Axezzer-a ttuɣa-t d adyulujiy d asertiy minzi ikkes zi leḥsab-nnes amenɣi ameqqwran n uzarug i igga Muḥand mmi-s n Abdelkrim Lxettabi. Taydart niɣ awal x uryaz-a qa-t ɛad iceṭṭen, igga aceddi d umxumbel minzi isrusa iseqsiten x ddsas n twaṭaniyt d umiyen (imiten, des mythes) min xef tebna d mani d tlul zi lallaɣ n uḥewas aspanyu niɣ ahewwas  afransis di Lmerruk.

Aseḥqer n tumast niɣ n min ɛnan irifiyen ittban-dd g mind as-iweqɛen i tutlayt d tussna Tamaziɣt deffar n uzarug n 1956. War ɛtarfen ci zzay-sent. Arrif ttuɣa-t qbel i 1956 s wadday uḥeṭṭu n fud Spaniya maca g 1956 tuc-it Spaniya i uwank/ddewla tazraragt n Lmerruk. Manaya war t-fhimen ci Irifiyen. Minzi aneggaru-ya, awank di Lmerruk igga ijen tsertit war tettwafhim ci, war deg-s ufin irifiyen ixfawen-nnsen. Di ssekwila s umedya tettwakkes tutlayt taspanyut ggin amcan-nnes tutalyt n Teɛrabt d tutlayt tafansist. A nerni ɛawd belli  lmuwaddafin i d-uwin ad xedemn di tmessugurin (des administrations) n lweqt-nni tuɣa-ten war ssiwilen ci tmaziɣt n Arrif.

Manaya igga aṭṭas n tɛenkraf bac ad jjen war d-txelleq ci ijen tufrint (nnuxba)  tasertityt n Irifiyen (l’émergence des élites politiques rifaines) awarni azarug n 1956. Aṭṭas zzay-sen rewlen ɣer barra deffar min imsaren g 1958-1959. Irifiyen ufin-dd ixfawen-nnes zdat i imessuguren (des administrateurs) war issiwilen ci awal-nnsen, war ssinen ci tuẓlayin n temnaḍt (spécificités de la région), wer ssinen ci kultura d tebridt n ufekker n Irifiyen.

Gi lweqt-nni ẓẓeyyar yiweḍ ijjen uswir yuɛlan asmi ikker ukabar n listiqlal ad iddez, ad iqqen aqemmum i yewdan ixisen ad sɣuyyen x wagla d uzref-nnsen. Minzi akabar n Listiqlal tuɣa ixes ad iṭṭef tamurt d tanbaḍt (ssulta) weḥḥdes, maḥend ad yemneɛ kulci di tmurt. Marra manaya immerni-d bac ad isḍuqqez tankra/taɣuyyit n 1958-59 ittwaddzen s uqbau, uzzlen deg-s idammen, yegga deg-s userdas n Hassan wiss II ddenf d ameqqran n izerfan n wumdan. Tawngimt n Arrif d irifiyen war tettu manaya, yeqqim deg-s am rcam aberkan deg izdayen (iseɣwan) jar Arrif d Lmaxzen.

Amɣar n Lḥirak n Arrif, Naser zzefzafi akked imeddukal-nnes deg icten zi tmeskanin n unhezzi.

Tutlayt d Tussna tamaziɣt ttwakksent (ssiggʷjen-tent zi tudert) seg usistim n uselmed ittwagen akud-nni s yisem n taɛra-neslemt i yugin x tuẓlayt tamaziɣt s umata, d tuẓalyt Tarifit s uẓley (en particulier).Ilaq a nini danita belli asseɛreb n ssekwila war yeggi waha tasuqelt niɣ tterjama n tumayin tididaktiyin (les contenus didactiques) s Teɛrabt. Asseɛreb iga adyulujiy, nniya-nnes txis asfaḍ n tmitar n tumast Tamaziɣt bac ad terni tumast taɛra-neslemt. Iwdan i sseqsiɣ, yenni minked ggiɣ imsawalen di twuri-ya, qqaren belli min ddren d min sseɛdan gi ssekwlila niɣ tinmel tamenzut (école primaire) war yelli nurmal (tuɣa-t anurmal) deg usegmi-nnsen d ussamun-nnsen (éducation/ socialisation). Ssekwila tban-d am ci n weqḍaɛ jar uḥermuc anelmad d lfamiliya-nnes, d ddcar-nnes. Ankad (La stigmatisation) n tmaziɣt n Arrif d ussemɣer n teɛrabt illan tunsibt, teqqen zeɛma ɣar tussna g uɣerbaz. Yenni sseqsiɣ ttɛawaden belli wer ufin ci aweqqar di ssekwila i tutlayt-nnsen tayemmat d tuẓlayin tidelsanin d timezrayin-nnsen (d les spécificités culturelles et historiques).

Dinni inelmaden imeẓẓyanen i yeccin qabu minzi ssawalen s wawal-nnsen n tmaziɣt di ssekwila. Dinni qaɛ iselmaden i ttbezzazen abrusi (izmaz) niɣ lkurfi (des amendes ou des corvées) x iḥenjiren issawalen tmaziɣt di tdala (en classe) niɣ deg wazzareg (cour de récréation). Yenni i sseqsiɣ qqaren belli dinni lḥegra ṭayṭay, lḥegra-ya trezzu ad tekkes ccan d lqima i min ɛnan nitni ig illan d Irifiyen, lḥegra ittḥadan tumast. Inni min ked nessiwel lebda qqaren ila din ijjen taynit ḥuma ad asen-kksen ccan-nnsen, ad asen-ggen ddenf x tumast-nnsen.

Waxxa aṭṭas n twuriwin ittwaggent x tarabɣurt (l’inefficacité) n tsertit tasnilsiyt (la politique linguistique) iqqnen ɣer tikkest n tutlayt tayemmat deg ussɣer, d tmaziɣt g waddad-nneɣ ; d ijen ssibba ittedjan inelmaden ad rewlen zi ssekwila (Ziamari, 2016). Mass Benhakeia (2011) iqqar : « amata (aṭṭas n iwdan) war ssinen belli mala war din assidef n tutlayt tayemmat di ssekwila war tettifed ci talwit n tutlayt (paix linguistique). Ktar zi manaya war nzemmar a naf dinni almad n tadimukratiyt. Yenni nneɣni war ssedḥin ad sneqsen zeg wazal (lqima) n wagla-ya i dasen-d-jjin lejdud-nnsen? ».

Imeḥḍaren d inelmaden iɛdan gi ssekwila niɣ aɣerbaz niɣ tasdawit ssawalen marra x useḥqer niɣ lḥugra. Jerrebn lḥugra ittḥadan tumast-nnsen, ẓran asenqes zeg wazal-nnes, iwdan ɛawed iɣensen x tumast-a ufan-d ixfawen-nnsen war ten-jjin ad nejḥen gi ikunkuren n wadaf ɣer lxedmet aked ddewla. Irifiyen-nneɣni i sseqsiɣ  qqaren belli ddren lferziyat d lɛunsuriya. Xelli illa wenɛam unsib s tmaziɣt gi ddustur n 2011 awarni  timeskanin n 20 Febrayer 2011, iqqim uselmed-nnes d aḥidar, mazal ittmurud war ibedd x iḍaren-nnes. Ijjen inna-ayi belli war din bu anɛam n tidett, Asekzi-ya wer ibayen war yessfi. Deg wemnad n Unhezzi, gar-asteɛref sḥissan zzay-s aṭṭas ktar zi qbel minzi imun aked uhruri n tfadiwin tikunumiyin d tnamunin, d wefsar n tmeslayin i yeqqnen ɣer rriɛ d tɣuni i yellan jer tufrint tarifit aked ddewla.  

Seg udmawen n lḥugra, nettaf  assinef adamsan n tamnaḍt niɣ tamurt n Arrif. Qqaren Irifiyen marra belli Arrif deg-s agla abeḥri, tizemmar n iwdan-nnes d wagla adriman niɣ n tinɛacin[4] d umyagal (le contraste) n lḥala mani tella lux ijjen tyumi ihwan n tdamsa, manaya iɛren Irifiyen ad wwcen ḥadur zi min d-yuwi Listiqlal d min tuɣa illan gi lweqt n uḥewwas. Iwdan ixsen ad ssersen ttmenyat-nnsen deg isenfaren di Arrif, qqaren-asen iwdan n ddewla ad raḥen ad ggen lmacariɛ-nnsen gi tmdinin-nneɣni am Fas, Tanja, niɣ Dar Lbida. Ha mayemmi qqaren belli Arrif ittdwar ɣa deffar (gi la regression) minzi dinni wi ixisen ad yeqqim s wadday, d akkuḥ, ad idder g useḥqer bac ɛemmers war ittif abrid ɣer wagla-nnes ad yegg zzay-s min ixis i yexf-nnes i tarwa-nnes iḍennaṭ, nhar-a niɣ tiwecca.

Lḥugra n tutlayt d tussna temmerni-d x lḥugra n umezruy d tsertit d tdamsa. Usmawen n Lḥugra llan manima traḥed, lḥugra tedwel d ijn tsertit n lmexzen, tegga tasistimatikt.

Nufa danita belli lḥugra nettat d ijen tembirt n leḥkam d tillugna (un mode de gouvernement et de régulation) di Arrif  maca war nettettu ci belli lḥugra-ya d nettat ig illan d ssibba n iẓuran tirmitin n tɣariwin tuzdirin (expériences morales negatives) ig idefɛen Irifiyen ad adfen ad cercen g Unhezzi n usɣuy n Arrif.

Aṭṭas n midden icerken deg unhezzi, maca azgen ameqqran d iḥudriyen.

**

Lḥugra d umseksi x usteɛref n Tumast : Anhezzi n Arrif d lebni n tesnamekt tanamunt

Tirmitin tuzdirin i jerrben Irifiyen g umezruy-nnsen iwca-asen ssibba d tizemmar bac ad munen ad sɣuyyen kuntra min xasen immersen s uɣil. « Lḥugra i zi sḥussan ijja iwdan ad xarrsen mayemmi iwqeɛ wayawya »[5]. Ffeɣn Irifiyen marra ɣer wannar amatu minzi zemren ad bnan ijen tesnamekt tamegrawt (sémantique collective) (Honneth, 2000) ismunen Irifiyen gi Lḥirak bac ad sɣuyyen kuntra ddell d useḥqer d lbaṭel. Anhezzi-ya tuɣa-t d azeyrar laḥeqqac imeɣnasen uwin-dd lkadraj i d-uymen seg idles, d tussna d umezruy d tumast n Arrif d izamulen-nnsen ɛad iddern g twengmit-nnsen. Zi lallaɣ n unhezzi-ya, Zemmaren imeɣnasen ad kksen seg ubrid-nnsen imxumbal d txecbin n tdyulujiyt d tsertit i nettaf lebda g inhezziten iɛdan, inni i ttuɣa itteggen iẓra deg webrid (les blocages) tuɣa-ten sserwalen iwdan, ittejj-iten ad awin ci n uxezzer d aɛeffan x min teɛna tsertit niɣ aɣnas x izerfan d wagla. Imeɣnasen ɛawd uwin-d aṭṭas n leḥwayej timaynutin tustiyin bac ad bnan anhezzi illan ura d netta amaynu d ustiy di Arrif, d Lmarruk.

Inaw d wawal d izamulen n imeɣnasen ibna x tumast d lḥugra n tumast ig illan d ijen ssabab ameqwran n uḍuqqez n unhezzi n Arrif. Nettaf-iten qqaren Anhezzi-ya d win Arrif niɣ Anhezzi-ya d arifiy bac ad sbeynen belli netta d ustiy, belli iqqen ɣar ijjen temnaḍt tbayn. Tumast-a tarifiyt teqqen ɣer igejda (tiḥenya) imeqwranen am tutlayt, tussna (idles) d umezruy. S uyenni iqqar Ɛayad Zerwal : ijen bloggeur : « Arrif iqqim aṭṭas n lweqt gi texcebt n jar afham i t-yejjin d ijen tmurt weḥdes ur tcerrec ca g usuyur – asugur n la cité »[6] Abeddel i d-yewwi Unhezzi « islul-d tiɣist tamgerawt (une intelligence collective) n wegdud ittwalan ɣar uɣezdis n tyumi n iwdan d Tedimukratiyt tadigant (la démocratie locale).

Neẓra iḥudriyen d iḥenjiren war xisen ci ad slen i lfeqha wala nnuxab. Gi lweqt-nni n lḥukuma n islamiyen (les islamistes) d uwank (ssulta) ugin ad asen-ittwakkes ujertil, ugin x umuni n irifiyen x tyumi tadigant tagensant (développement local et endogène).[7] Asɣun aked tumast (Le rapport à l’identité) deg-s sin (tnayn) n wanawen (iklussay) : amezwaru : ugin irifiyen tumast ittwaḥqaren, ittwankaḍen (stigmatisée); ugin irifiyen ad ttwakerfen, ad ttwaḥbbsen gi tumast am tanita minzi deg-s lbaṭel, texḍa, maci tumast-nnsen n tidett. Aɛawed n tuska n umgru arifi (La reconstitution du collectif rifain) ittwagg x ijen tumast innuffern, ittumnɛen, war tbin ci i yewdan, tumast-a tin Wuddur/lɛezz (la fierté) d uburz d Timmuzɣa (dignité).

Ijen seg ihudriyen i sseqsiɣ di jjwayh n Biya, d axeddam gi lkampu inna : « Anhezzi iddafaɛ x min iqqnen ɣar tumast d uleqqeɛ n tumast d umezruy, nrezzu anɛam s temnaḍt d izamulen-nnes. D manaya i dayi-itthimman aṭṭas/ujar». Irna inna « di Arrif ɣar-neɣ leɛwayd-nneɣ tustiyin, timeɣriwin-nneɣ, ṭṭbiɛet-nneɣ, aweqqer i ɣer-neɣ, ɣar-neɣ tussna-nneɣ weḥd-neɣ. Asmi ttraḥeɣ ɣer temnaḍin-nneɣni ttafeɣ deg-sent min wer ɣer-neɣ yellin …» S ijjen uxezzer-nniḍen, tasnamekt tamegrawt (la sémantique collective) tuwi-d ijen uqḍaɛ d ameqran i d-yessedwlen « leɛqel arifiy /la raison rifaine »[8] ɣer wemcan-nnes agaman, ɣar Arrif. Bac ad ixarres g min t-itthimman netta d imnusen n wemcan s lexzrat-nneɣni. Anhezzi iqḍeɛ akd tmegga d wuɣun askizufriniy ɣar imnusen yaggʷjen i tebna tedyulujiyt tunsibt n udabu d ikabaren isertanen d tɣamsa (les acteurs politiques officiels et la presse). Anhezzi issawal x « lux d danita ». Abeddel-a wanita n uswingem d uxarres yewqeɛ g Arrif d Diyaspura. Aked Lhirak neẓra adwal n urifiy ɣer iman-nnes war yeqqim ca d ameslub (aliéné), ikey-nnes (la conscience) war yeqqim ci inneɛreq, war iqqim ci d amtluɛ.

Yedwel Unhezzi d ijjen umcan mani ttɛawaden, ssawaren iwdan bac ad sbyennen tumast-nnsen d isutar-nnsen. Ksin tiwlafin n Abdelkrim d Ibanduten n tegduda n Arrif d Tmazɣa. Izwagen d iɣennijen n unhezzi, inawen n Zefzafi d Jellul d Uḥemjiq ttwaggen s tmaziɣt d ddarija. Dewlen Irifiyen burzen ad ssiwlen s trifeyt, tedwel Tmaziɣt n Arrif Tutlayt n umsawaḍ, ikessin min ddren imezdaɣ (expérience et vécu) s ccwiyt n yinzan d walawen (anawen n wawal-nnsen (alwa/métaphores)) arendad i wawal asnawan n nnuxab. Ggin ineɣmasen isiten ilikṭruniyen d tiduba di tracca niɣ g suciyal midiya, ssawalen deg-sen s usrid mebla timunnad s wawal-nnsen : manaya d ijen wudem ittsiqsiq (asfadjat) n uḥama x tumast tamaziɣt n Arrif d Irifiyen.

Anhezzi ismussey (isaḥarrec) timɣarin, irgazen, d iḥenjiren d thenjirin deg waṭṭas n imucan d innaren deg wazzareg amatu (l’espace public): ṭṭaksiyat, ttubisat, isaragen, leqhawi. G innaren-a iwweḍ Unhezzi ad ismun awal x tumast n Irifiyen, wad issiwel x usinef n tmurt-nnsen, mkul ijjen yuwi-d akid-s tirmit-nnes d uxarres-nnes d imassen-nnes.

Yewweḍ unhezzi ad issedwel ɣer weɣnas iwdan ixwan annar, yina irewlen zi weɣnas minzi war dasn-iɛjib uɣnas n wawal ixwan mebla ma ad awḍen ɣer ca. Imeɣnasen-a qqaren belli Anhezzi « iqqar, ittegg ». Anhezzi yessedwel-d aɣnas ɣer wannar, issufeɣ-d arifiy seg uɣamus-nnes, yessers tumast di lallaɣ n imnusen, yesmun irifyien ifezzɛen bac ad dewlen d ijjen umeggay imunen (un acteur collectif) i tuɣa itwagzmen iseggʷasen i yeɛdun. Unmas-a (Cette subjectivation) ismun-dd irifiyen i tuɣa ymsebḍan s ssibbet n umezruy d tsertit n uwank d ikabaren. [Ismun-dd ɛawd jjmaɛet tarifiyt bla ḥarsu n tedyulujiyt, tifernin -lintixabat- atg.]

Zi tmeskanin i yettwaggen s llilet amen tettren asnufsel n imɣaren n Lḥirak.

Ucin imeɣnasen i tumast n Arrif ijen wudem mani llan izalen umnijen (des valeurs positives) tticcen i yexfawen-nnsen : nettaf awal x lɛezz n imenɣi n lejdud mgal aḥewwas, aɣnas mgal i uqhar (tyrannie) d uturutarizem (l’autorotarisme) n Lmexzen. Imeɣnasen burzen s imenɣi x wuddur d tlelli d tmurt. Imeɣnasen tteḥsabn ixfawen-nnsen d ayyawen n tnazabyt n irifiyen mɣar qqaren belli nitni tteggen ijen twuri n ufra tanegrayt (bla ddenf, non violente). Nettaf aṭṭas deg inaw n Unhezzi udmawen am Abdelkrim El-Khettabi, n Cherif Ameziane akd Lḥaj Sellam Ameziane. Tumast n Arrif ssawalen x-as imeɣnasen am ijjen tumast n umuni, iḥeṭṭan mgal umsefraq i tteggen waɛdawen n nhar-a irwasen g waɛdawen n yiḍennaḍ. Anhezzi issers ixf-nnes g usiɣi n twengimt tanamunt (collective) n Irifiyen. Nettaf deg Unhezzi ijen uɛawed n lebni n urifiy s imant-nnes (reconstruction de soi) deg-s asitem ad yaf udem-nni n yiman-nnes seg unnar n tmegga bac ad imun mgal/contra jjiht-nneɣni mani nettaf awank n Lmaxzen, ikabaren isertanen d tmesmunin irezzunt min ɣa ccent waha, d lbarunat n lmuxaddirat.

Ammu issersen ccurut n wadaf g Wenhezzi i ttuɣa d amussu n tlelli, n wuddur d taɣdemt tanamunt (justice sociale) ». Anhezzi idwel issawal s yisem n jjmaɛet n Irifiyen illan g ubrid n umuni. Tebna ijten n tumast n irifiyen xisen i yiman nnsen mgal ijen tumast umi immekkes wazal i yexleq lmaxzen i yrifiyen.  Anhezzi d umumintu d amezruyan d azamulan, i d-ugmen imeɣnas-nnes zi talawin n umezruy, tettun ixef-nnsen x jjmaɛet.  Danita wer nzemmar a nettu belli deg imsiriḍen n Kaza (les procès de Casablanca) ttwaggen contra amezruy n Arrif d Arrif s imant-nnes, ijjen umsiriḍ mgal [9] lɛezz mgal aḥewwas. Manaya n tesnamekt tamegrawt (la sémantique collective) ɣar-s ijen wemcan imɣar minzi ttuwid tessedwel-d ijen wudem arifiy anazbay, yerzun tilelli d izerfan n yewdan.

Anhezzi d uklasi n usteɛref : Asteɛref n tidett niɣ asteɛref d aydyuluji ?

Asteɛref/assikez war izemmar ad yili mebla awal d tmegga.[10]. Mala war tbeddil ci n lḥajt jar iwdan d jar-asen d tsentutin (les institutions) ataf dinni asayem niɣ anusru (abime ou déficit) itterran asterɛef d adyuluji. Mala tucid awal n usteɛref bac war yettɣmi manayenni d umiyen niɣ ixarriqen walabudd a nessen belli min ittuqiɛen di tilawt d lmizan n leḥkem d asbdad n yibḍi aneggaru (critère de jugement ultime). Asselken amattiw (la réalistaion matérielle). Tilawt ag ixessa a nerzu wac wenni isteɛrafen issdus tizemmar-nnes waha niɣ ittic tizemmar i yewdan ixisen ad ilin mebla aseḥqer. S uya iqqar Unhezzi belli asteɛref s tmaziɣt issentan g 2011 war ikemmel ci, inqess d war yesseqniɛ ci iwdan.

Min iwqeɛn di Arrif, ittijj-aneɣ a nẓar asteɛref n tdyulujiyt maci d win tidet, neẓra ijen tuddzi temɣar i wmussu-ya n imenɣi n usteɛref n tidet.

*mala nedwel ɣer tkermin, a naf limart n manaya g IER. Taymunt-a tettwagg g wakud n Hassan wis II nhar i yxis ad iwec tanbaḍt i memmis Mohamed. Anhezzi isbeyyen-d belli amsasa jar Arrif d Lmexzen ur yewwiḍ iswi-nnes, deg-s aṭṭas n tineftukin (les lacunes) nna d-isbayen Unhezzi s imant-nnes. Anhezzi ikrtika amsuluḥ (ittwaggen g 2004/2005)

*igezdew niɣ igejdi win ssin/tnayn n usteɛerf s tutlayt tamaziɣt d mamec as-ggin ad tadef ɣer ssekwila.

*Nhar i yeṭṭef Mohamed wis sḍis tanbaṭ, ila llan aṭṭas n tufrinin tirifiyin carcent gi weskar n PAM. Anhezzi ikritika s tiqqest tembirt (lmanira) n usugur n tɣawsiwin tidiganin n Arrif (la gestion des affaires locales du Rif). Win ittwalan min imsaren lweqt-nni ittɣil-as belli dinni amsuluḥ asertan jar Arrif d Ddewla minzi aqa Irifiyen cercen /ṭṭfen tanbaḍt  la di Arrif niɣ ula di Rbaḍ gi Lberlaman.

Imeɣnas n Lḥirak.

* Aseɛḍel iqqnen s wenɛam s tumast n Arif, nettefham-it belli ittwagg g ijen usati itxarrasen g tussna d yidles d tumast am ijen wayda (patrimoine), maci am ijen idles d tussna ittxarrasen s imant-nnes mamec ɣer tedder d man tfadiwin i das-iselḥen bac ad tedder.

Tussna-ya ittxiss-as ad tili s wadday n min txis ddewla niɣ Lmaxzen. Manaya ittejja-aneɣ a nini belli asati anamur (le cadre national) i xef tdafaɛ ddewla iga win usseḍɛef d useftuttes n tussna, tiɣtasin (Les decisions) tunsibin iqqnen ɣar wenɛam s tussna d tumas d tutlayt tamaziɣt war ṭṭifent ci abrid ɣer ijjen uwekked isebḥen s ixef n tmuast-a tanita. Ankad (Le stigmate) ɛad aqa-t illa maḥend tumast-a wa ɣar-s ci imassen ad itwaɛder min itwasexsern bac ad ternu tyumi nnes ad deg-s afen iwdan-nnes min ḥtajjan. Asteɛref d ijjen tembirt waha bac Lmaxzen ad yini belli dinni anɛam, bac iwdan iɣensen xas ad ssusmen, bac ad yaf ad asen-yini « kenniw trennim deg-s ».

Anɛam war yebni x ijen uxarres x min teḥtadja tumast d min t-isshelcen zi jjihet n Lmaxzen bac ad taf asanf (lḥal) n umsasa d useggem min iferɣen, d useggenfi zi lehlak bac ad tennerni g ubrid mbra timuḍan (les pathologies) I d-djan wassaɣen n yiḍnnat.

Anhezzi isbeyyen-d belli ddula tugi ad tenɛem, isbeyyen-d belli dinni ɛad min ixisen ad ṭṭfen irifyien s wadday s uzaglu d uḥray n ucarif aɣelnaw, war yettraja zzay-sen ci n ḥajet bla lbayɛa d wadar (rrkiɛ). D mala zemmarn ad ssiwlen, awal-nnsen ixessa war iɛeddi icarriḍen izeggwaɣen. S manaya nettaf azɣan zi jjiht Irifiyen yemɣar aṭṭas minzi ddula tugi ad tessɣed i isutar mgal lḥugra d usseḥqer.

Anfalal

D tidett aparadigem n wenɛam yewi-d amaynu gi teṭyurit takritikt mɣar deg-s cwayt n tneftukin (lacunes) maca war zemmreɣ ad x-asen ssiwleɣ g usarag-a wanita. Itthimma aṭṭas ad ssiwleɣ x sin ipunututen g uneggaru:

1* azal n teṭyurit n wenɛam illa minzi tettagem-d zi tirmitin tiɣariwin tuzdirin bac ad tawi min war yesbiḥen ci ɣer iwdan, niɣ igrawen n yiwdan. Ttajarib-a itteqsen ttafent iẓuran-nnsent g lḥugra. Lḥugra tanita tmeḥḥa bnadem minzi war das-tettic aburz s min iɛna, s tumast-nnes. Axel Honneth iqqar belli anɛam ittawi-d g ubrid n imenɣi x tudert isebḥen d mbra lbaṭel amenni teqqar tafilusuft tanamunt. Imenɣi-ya macci waha yenni iqqnen ɣer weɣrum d rrebḥ d tdamsa amaknaw i tt-nettaf g uxarres n Hobbes d Machiavel. G Unhezzi, nettaf isutar idamsanen d inamunen (les revendications économiques et sociales) udfen g umxumbel d umnus ameqran n Lḥugra, ṭṭfen ɣar (ccurut/ mamek) mamec tzemmer tumast ad tbedd x iḍaren-nnes s imant-nnes s wudmawen-nnes.

2* ijjen upuntu ameggaru i walabud a neyder minzi itthimma aṭṭas: taṭyurit n wenɛam tebna x ijen ddsas amanhaji n uɛawed n lebni alugan : lmanhaj- wanita ibedda-d zi wadday, zi min qqaren iwdan, zi min ttɛicen iwdan bac ad iɛdel uxarres (armiwen/ concept) issawalen g tilawt-a niɣ lwaqiɛ. Tebna x min ittwakennan s akritik ittarḥen ɣur wul n tmeslayin (Immanent critic). Manaya n ukritiki iswiza bac a nefhem mayemmi imussuten niɣ inhezziten war qqimin ca g ufus n ikabaren isertanen i yxedmen ɛad s imassen iqdimen, niɣ akritiki aqdim. Tessnem marra belli Anhezzi isemma ikabaren isertanen s tiḥuna tisertanin u timesmunin iqqar-asent(stirzaqia) khobzistes.

Tanmirt x taynit nnwen nkumt , a tqadawum tqadawumt.


[1] Ibid., p. 42.

[2] Ibid., p. 13.

[3] Ibid, p. 133.

[4] Ils sont unanimes à relever l’importance de ses richesses naturelles (halieutiques) et humaines (émigration et potentialité) et financières (transferts des émigrés rifains vers les banques de la région)

[5] Interview le12 avril 2017 à Al-Hoceima.

[6] Ayad Zarwal, bloggeur . « le Rif est resté trop longtemps piégé dans une incompréhension de la fabrique locale de son territoire et de départicipation à la cité.

[7] https://blogs.mediapart.fr/ayadd-zaroual/blog/120718/le-hirak-ddu-rif-au-maroc-pourquoi-le-pouvoir-se-mefie-dde-sa-ddiaspora.

[8] Expression utilisée souvent dans les débats entre lettrés rifains.

[9] Déclaration d’Ahmed Zefzafi, certains militants ainsi que les associations de la société civile

[10]Honneth, La société du mépris. 267

Timaynutin

Fser-itt