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Ssebt 13 Yebril 2024

Acarreg n tarwa n imenneɛraq jar iles n iẓuran-nnsen d iles n tmurt mani zeddɣen!

Texsed ad tessned ijjen wufur, ijjen wufur ila ttsedḥiɣ a t-iniɣ, snuffreɣ-t aṭṭas zi mani? A x-as ariɣ minzi ila ggiɣ ijjen wemsawal aked ijjen tmeddukelt ɣer-s ijjen wufur yerwes di wenni-inu.

Ssiwleɣ aked Jacinta Nandi. D tamarit am nec. Baba-s yus-d zi Lhend, am baba. Tnayen-a n ibabaten-a meɣren-d d nitni ssawalen tabingalit. Baba-s iɛreq ɣer Nnegliz, baba ɣer Uliman, mani i meɣreɣ.

Baba-s n Jacinta, islemd-as mamec tzemmer ad tirar s wawalen s tenglizit, maca “ɛemmer-s wer das-isselmed mamec ɣa tegg ad tirar s wawalen s tbingalit.” D aya i d-tenna.

Ila issawal akid-i baba lebda s tlimant. S tidett, ila ttesliɣ-as yessawal s tbingalit: di Ttliffu, niɣ aked ca n imeddukal-nnes ihindawiyen i izeddɣen deg Uliman.

Maca wer fehhmeɣ min dasen-iqqar amenni. Kṭer zi manaya, isem-inu, Mithu netta s Tbingalit, maca Ibingaliyen qqaren-ayi qa wer neṭṭqeɣ ca isem-inu nican.

S tidett, wer zemmreɣ ula d ad neṭqeɣ isem-inu nican.

Ar wami ssiwleɣ aked Jacinta, ila ttɣileɣ belli ca n ḥajet wer teggur ca amec i das-ixess akid-i. Min iɛna wa i wer yessinen iles n baba-s? Maca ittban-d ila aṭṭas n midden ggin am nec.

wer zemmreɣ ula d ad neṭqeɣ isem-inu nican.

Annick De Houwer d tanemhalt n tracca n “Harmonious Bilingualism” d Taprufisurt n uselmed n yelsawen n ugetiles di tesdawit n Erfurt deg Uliman, i yellan d ijjen tmuzayt deg usentel n :”mayemmi ca n familiyat sweḍḍrent ilsawen-nnsent.”

Di 2003, tefser ijjen tnaṭṭuft n ijjen lankiṭ x usexdem n yilesawen ɣer 18 000 n familiya di tmurt n Iflamaniyen i yessawalen tahulandit di Biljik.

Teqqar De Houwer, i yellan d tanessixeft n tmesmunt tagraɣlant n tɣuri n yiles n iḥenjiren, -teqqar-: « Ufiɣ belli iḥenjiren i dd-ittemɣaren deg ijjen twennaḍt d tasenilest wer ssiwilen ca tnayen n yelsawen. [wenni n familyat-nnsen d wenni n tmurt mani zeddɣen]»

Lankiṭ-a d tɣuriwin i tegga De Houwer di ca n tmura-nneḍni aked ca n yeslawen-nneɣni mmlint-id ila jar 12% d 44% n iḥenjiren i dd-iggamen tteslan i tnayen-a n yelsawen niɣ kṭer, maca ɣer umeggaru, ssawalen ḥa icten waha.

« Azgen ameqqran n isegman, lemmden iwalen di tnayen n yelsawen. Maca xmi ttraḥen ɣer tmezgida n tɣuri, ttɛicen aked ijjen iles waha. Maɣar? Minzi ijjen cwayt, tterran taynit ḥa i iles-nni ittafen di tmezgida waha, xenni iḥenjiren fehhmen belli iles-nniḍen, wer ineffeɛ. Wer ineffeɛ!

Xmi ḥeggnen tiwacitin-nnsen!

Wami bdiɣ ad fekkreɣ di manaya, xenni bdiɣ ttseqsiɣ iwdan mayemmi wer ssiwilen iles n familiyat-nnsen. Aṭṭas zzag-sen, mmlin-d ca n twacitin ila ttuɣa ḥeggnen iles n familiyat-nnsen tudert-nnsen amen tekmel.

« Ilul baba di Lubnan, issawal ḥa taɛrabt di ttliffu, aked inewjiwen niɣ di Arristura.», i teqqar Adrea Karimé, tamarit n tenfas n iḥenjiren imeẓẓyanen deg Uliman. «Iwa, wami ila lliɣ d tameẓẓyant, ila yettɣil-ayi ssawaleɣ ijjen yiles s wufur. « Baba, idwel d ijjen wufur ɣer-i. »

Ḥaca Emily Chowdhury, i yellan d ijjen artista tzeddeɣ di Berlin, teydar-dd tagit-a: «Wami lwalidin-inu ssawalen x ca n tmeslayin i yella neccin wer daneɣ-cqint, ssawalen lwalidin-inu tabingalit. Iles-a, sxeddamen-t ḥma ad aneɣ-ssinfen. »

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Di twalat d icten, xmi i dd-mmalen isamwen-nneɣ i ɣer-neɣ manis neccin, uca nettmelqa aked ḥedd ittessen-aneɣ manis neccin s yismawen-nneɣ, xenni issawal akid-neɣ iles n iẓuran-nneɣ nican. Xmi wer x-as d-nettari ca s iles-nni, qqaren-aneɣ iwa mayemmi wer tt-ttelmidem?

Ttmettiɣ aṭṭas x tqessist “8 n markat n wenɛam n yiles-inu.” Azlawi Noel Quiñones, ilul, yemɣer deg Umarikan, yessiwel x mamec izemmer ad yili “s iẓuran d Ipurturikuten” maca wer yessiwil ca mliḥ Taspanyut: « Isem n familiya i ɣer-i ittejja iberraniyen ad ayi-inin : “ttuɣa ixess x lwalidin-nnec ad ac-slemden Taspanyut”.

Din wi iqqaren ɛawed ila ttuɣa ixess-aneɣ a negg tizemmar-nneɣ kṭer. Axmi iḥenjiren ttbucan imeẓẓuɣen-nnsen xmi ssawalen imeqqranen taspanyut.

Qqarent ca n tɣuriwin belli Ilatiniyen i wer yessiwilen ca taspanyut ila ttacan s lɛurret umi sweḍḍren iles-nnsen.

Ilsawen-nneɣni

Tteḥsabeɣ x yelsawen-nni i nesweḍḍer neccin am “ilsawen-nneɣni“. Aqqa-ten ttwaẓẓun di lejdud-nneɣ d iktayen n temẓi-nneɣ, maca ggʷjen x-aneɣ, minzi ɛemmers wer ten-nelmid, ɛernen-aneɣ maḥend a ten-nettu.

Di min ɣer-i iqqnen, cciɣ tnayen n teyyita. Wer lmideɣ ca iles n yemma, tapulandit. Wami meɣreɣ, lwalidin-inu ttuɣa wer xsen bu ad lemdeɣ tabingalit niɣ tapulandit. Nnan-asen mala ca n uḥenjir ilemmed aṭṭas n yelsawen di twalat d icten, ataf wer ilemmed ula d ijjen zzag-sen. Axmi ilsawen i nlemmed ad sferɣen iles n “tidett”, niɣ Talimant.

Teqqar De Hower « Ilsawen maci d ijjen ḥajet zi min yeɛdan waha» tesemɛna-d x uxarres-nni i yeqqaren belli ilsawen qa zemmren ad jjen iḥenjiren ɣer deffer niɣ ad mxerwaḍen, ad telfen.

Maca qa di tidett, mmlint-id tirezzutin belli awal n iḥenjiren isinilsen wer issetlif ca, uca ca n twalatin xmi sxellaṭen iḥenjiren tnayen n yelsawen msebḍan deg wawal-nnsen (niɣ umi nettlaɣa code-switching niɣ ‘translanguaging’) manaya wer ixes ca ad yini ila qa telfen niɣ mxerwaḍen. Maca ixes ad yini ila asexdem n umawal n tnayen n yelsawen-a ḥma ad ixḍaren man awal i dd-ittasen nican aked min rezzun ad inin.

Icten ameknaw Martha Bigelow, taselmadt n ‘yiles wis tnayen’ di tesdawit n Minnesota, deg Umarikan, teqqar ila din aṭṭas n ixarrisen i wer yellin ca nican x welmad n yelsawen, « axmi zeɛma ataf ḥsen mala bnadem wer isxelliṭ ca jar tnayen n yelsawen, zeɛma axmi bnadem ḥsen ad yessen drus zi mala yessen kṭer. »

Ddegg n ixarrisen ttejjan later-nnsen: « [Deg umarikan] qqaren lebda mala ixes ḥedd ad yelmed Tanglizit, ittxiss-as ad zzag-s yessawal weḥḥed-s waha. »

Maca di min iqqnen ɣer yiles wis tnaten, din ijjen beṭṭu iban di mamec i kid-s ittemsurruf wegdud. Tanglizit teḥḍer aṭṭas deg Uliman, merra trezzu ad tt-telmed. Argaz-inu d Abriṭani, uca merra tessawal ɣer-s s Tenglizit, xelli talimant-nnes ḥsen zi tenglizit-nnes.

Maca ilsawen-nniḍen wer ɣer-sen xezzren ca zi teɣmart-nni s ixef-nnes. Taturkit zeg yelsawen i yudrusen deg Uliman, s ijjen umezruy itteɛqab ɣer uɛraq n ixeddamen i d-yusin zi Tturk zeg iseggusa n 1960. Maca, Iturkufuniyen lebda leqqan zzat-sen lferz.

Deg useggʷas n 2020, ijjen tḥenjirt m tesɛa n iseggusa, tezzem-itt taselmadt-nnes minzi tessiwel Taturkit deg wazzreg n tmezgida n tɣuri deg Uliman. Aweddeb-nnes ataf ad tari s bezzez ijjen tqessist: “mayemmi i daneɣ-ixess a nessiwel Talimant di tmezgida n tɣuri”. Taqessist-nni i illa ixess-as ad tari dag-s ca n twinas am : “Wer daneɣ-ixess bu a nessiwel iles n tyemmat-nneɣ maḥend a nessiwel mliḥ talimant.”

Familya-nnes traḥ tdiklara zi tselmadt-nni, iɛawen-iten ijjen ubuɣaw, i dasen-yennan, ma mli tessiwel tanglizit deg wazzreg n temzgida ma ad weddben taḥenjirt-nni amenni.

Ilimaniyen s iẓuran Iturkiyen qqaren jar-asen: Taturkit maci d iles i ila ixess a nelmed, taturkit d iles i illa ixess a nettettu deɣya deɣya.

Di temdint-inu mani luleɣ di Düsseldorf, deg Uliman, ggin ijjen plaka uran x-as din s Teɛrabt maḥend ad smeɣren s ugetiles; dlin plaka-nni s ca n grafitti n arrasa; bdan tteggen x-asen axefawal ila “nitni” ixess ad lemden Talimant. Xelli ggin ijjen plaka s Tjapunit, maca qaɛ wer x-as snekkren haylala.

Mithu, zi lebda ila txes ad telmed Tabingalit

Azal n yelsawen

Mamec nzemmer a nessplikar amsebḍi-ya adramatiki deg wazal ittmewcan i yelsawen?

Mmalent ca n tɣuriwin belli manaya wer yeqqin ca ɣer yelsawen, maca ɣer mamec ttwalan ca n yewdan aɛraq.

« [Deg uliman]; ɛad ttwalan Ilimaniyen belli aɛraq maci d ijjen ḥajet nurmal. Yeqqar Mark Terkessidis, amari i yettwassnen deg yiger n tɣuriwin n wetlaɛ d arrasa, netta d agmam n tkadimit Der Welt (Takadimit n tẓuriwin n umaḍal) ila: “Iḥenjiren i yessawalen ijjen iles-nneɣni di taddart xezzren ɣer-sen axmi d iḥenjiren i wer yessiwilen ca Talimant di taddart”

Teqqar De Houwer: “belli manaya maci d asebḥan di tezdayin n familiya. Aqqa d ijjen ḥajet d tameqqrant s waṭṭas bnadem ad yessiwel iles n lwalidin-nnes: Manaya d asebḥan i ubabat, i iḥenjiren d twacunt.

Trenni De Houwer teqqar ila qa din aṭṭas n tmeslayin i izemmer wegdud ad yegg maḥend ad issemɣer zi manaya. Maca ittixessa a nessij x mamec ttemsurrufen aked ugetiles di ssekwila.

“Ixess merra ilsawen i d-ittawin iḥenjiren ɣer ssekwila ad ttwaweqqren, din ca n tebridin hewnent i d-immalen aweqqer-a. Ameknaw a nenṭeq mliḥ isem n uḥenjir”.

Wami wwḍeɣ ar danita ɣer wemsawal-a, bdiɣ ttruɣ, wami fekkreɣ deg isem-inu d mamec wer zemmreɣ a t-neṭqeɣ mliḥ.

Zeg uɣezdis n De Houwer tettwala ila din ca n isuraf d imeẓẓyanen zemmren ad ggen ijjen ubeṭṭu d ameqqran, am ixess a netter zeg iḥenjiren mamec zemmren ad inin “azul” s yiles i zi issawalen di taddart: “Ca n tmeslayin s lhimmet-nnsent am tina. Zi senni tzemmred a ten-tlemded”.

“Awern-as ad tettred tamɛawant zeg iḥenjiren. Ad bdan ad sellmen merra iḥenjiren n lqisem x umeḥḍar-nni amaynu s yiles-nnes. Manaya wer x-as nettɣastar walu n ttmenyat. Maca nzemmer a zzag-s nbeddel xirebbi n tmeslayin.

Azal-a i nettic i yiles ittejja-t ad yeḍhar di berra kter ukter, uca qa manaya yettɛawan aṭṭas”. I teqqar Bigelow.

“Iles, ixess wer ittɣimi ca n familiya waha, maca d ijjen iles iḥeṭṭer deg waṭṭas n imukan, s ijjen tsertit d tasenilest tban.”

Ad dd-nerr tudert i yiles!

Zeg uɣezdis-inu, ttwaliɣ ila nzemmer a nseggem asweḍḍer n yiles: Mala nerr-d “iles-nneḍni” di tudert-nneɣ. Xelli manaya yeqqseḥ bezzaf.

Ila ggiɣ tizemmer ḥma ad lemdeɣ tabingalit aṭṭas n twalatin. Ɛad xseɣ a tt-lemdeɣ. Awerni aṭṭas n tzemmar, zi ca n twinas i zemmreɣ ad iniɣ : Ami Bangla tschiketschi : “lemmdeɣ Tabingalit”. Ḥaca manaya yegga am ijjen uxarriq. Min lemdeɣ ila yeɛda xaf-i lḥal ḥma ad lemdeɣ merra manaya.

Maca Bigelow tqelb-ayi lfihem-inu amen yekmel: “maci lebda ixess-icek ad tlemded iles xmi tettilid d ameẓẓyan waha, ca n twalatin waxxa aqqa-ac d ameẓẓyan wer tlemmded walu.”

Maca ixess a nerr taynit cḥal nettic d tizemmar d lweqt ḥuma a nelmed iles-nni nican. S tidett ila lɛumur ittirar tilal-nnes deg welmad n yelsawen, maca qa ayenni iqqen ɣer imezran ɛawed, d ma ɣer-k ca n yewdan min ked tessawaled.

“Maci uɣil a nessiwel nican, niɣ a nenṭeq iwalen nican, ixess walli a nessers tizemmar-nneɣ x manaya waha” I teqqar Bigelow lebda

Zeg uɣezdis-nnes tettwala Houwer belli mala nfekker di min neḥwaj aya ittɛawan ḥuma a nixḍar man tastratijit n welmad. “Mala texsed a tessiwled aked familiya, niɣ aked iẓuran-nnec, nnehla ma truḥed ad tlemded ad tarid niɣ ad teɣred s yiles-a. Ixess ad tessawaled s yiles-a. Merra min texsed ad tegged ixess a ɣer-k ilin imeddukal ssawalen iles-a“.

Manaya s lhimmet-nnes. Minzi lebda ttaciɣ s leḥriq-nni iqqaz wul-inu wami wer zemmreɣ ad ɣreɣ idlisen i ttuɣa i yeqqar baba wami ila yella d ameẓẓyan. Maca sḥissiɣ s lefraḥet ɛawed melmi sḥisseɣ i Tbingalit, ttakzeɣ-tt di berra, waxxa zi laggʷaj.

Zemmreɣ ad xseɣ tabingalit waxxa wer zemmreɣ ad zzag-s ssiwleɣ nican.

Zemmreɣ ad afeɣ ijjen lmeɛna i min dag-s yeẓlin; am ismawen-nnes d imeqqimen-nnes wer dag-sen bu wanaw, niɣ dag-sen merra anawen.

Maca min dayi-itteɛjiben kṭer umi tabingalit dag-s setta n markat n tjerrumt, wis rebɛa-nnsen d ijjen ukadu warafadan i yella maci uɣil ad zzag-s tessiwled. D aya i ssitimeɣ ad ilin ilsawen-nneɣ: d ikaduten nettic-iten, tticen-aneɣ-ten.

Tala: BBC, tira: Mithu Snayal

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