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Ssebt 13 Yulyu 2024

Aɣennij amaziɣ n Arif: aremmus, tikli, anawen d tefraz (3)

Sufyan Lhani

3. Tamyadast taytimulujit i yirem n aɣennij:

Irem n “aɣennij“, i nessexdam -assa- s unamek n ufaris n tigi n llɣa d uẓawan i wawal, uxa neqqar-it i yimesli nni amesmun ig ismunan ɣar dixel-ines awal d llɣa d uẓawan, ikka-dd zeg umyag “ɣennej“, niɣ nican zeg uẓwar ƔNJ, i daneɣ-dd-iwcin isem n tigawtaɣennej“, d yisem n umeggayameɣnuj” (gt. imeɣnaj), d “ameɣnaj” (gt. imeɣnajen) ig ittwasexdamen ԑawed maknaw d afriz n uɣennej d uɣennij.

Min nnan yimawalen n Tmaziɣt n Arif, s yenni gin Yinemzaɣen d yenni gin Yirifiyen, x unamek d uremmus n uɣennij? Manis dd-ikka uẓwar d uremmus n uɣennij ɣar Tmaziɣt n Arif? Man inumak ig izmer ad kid-s dd-yawi uẓwar “ƔNJ” zi zik n zik n uɣennij amaziɣ?

D aya i ɣa nẓer gi temyadast-a taytimulujit i nettegg i yirem n uɣennij.

3.1. Anamek d uremmus n uɣennij deg yimawalen n Tmaziɣt n Arif :

Ittban-ay-dd uẓwar ƔNJ, manis dd-ikka “uɣennij“, maknaw ixleq ttnawi i bezzaf n Yinemzaɣen (Berbèristes) ifransisen imezgura x ma ad yili ikka-dd zi teεrabt niɣ ad ɣur-s ilin yiẓewran d imenzayen g umawal n Tmaziɣt Tamenzayt, qa R. Basi (1883, 1897) d S. Byarnay (1917) ur-dd-jbiden aẓwar n ƔNJ [R’NDJ] ɣir maknaw d aẓwar manis dd-tekka tguri n “taɣendjayt” gt. “tiɣendjayin” [thar’endjaith « cuiller », pl. thir’endjain] i yufa ɣar Yibeṭṭiwen n Arziw Aqdim (R. Basset, 1897 : 151), d “aɣenja” [grosse cuillère avec laquelle on remue le contenu de la marmite], gt. “iɣenjayen“, nmẓ., “taɣenjayt” (cuillère), gt. “tiɣenjayin” (S. Biarnay, 1917: 51).

Mimunt n Selwan, ict umi ttlaɣan “ccixa Mimunt”

3.1.1. Anamek d uremmus n uɣennij g umawal n L. Justinard (1926) :

L. Justinard (1926) d netta d anemzaɣ afransis amezgaru i dd-ijebden aẓwar “ƔNJ” maknaw d aẓwar n umyag n uɣennej d uɣennij (ittwari ɣur-s s tezgelt tamsislit “ɣennaj” [ɣennej]), maca isem n uɣennij (chanson) yuwi-aneɣ-dd dag-s isem n “urar” d “izri” (gt. izran).

Amaynu i day dd-ibanen gi terzut n Justinard netta d aqewwer-ines, zeg Yegzennayen, i tnayen n yermawen ig ittbanen maknaw weḍḍren-asen i yelsawen n Arif n wassa ; irem amezgaru netta d “tɣennajt” [taɣennajt] i dd-yuwi s unamek n “poèsie“, irem wis tnayen netta d “urar” ig isskanen ɣar unamek d ijj i ɣur-s ɣar “izri” (izli), maca sskanen yezli d wurar ɣar wawalen umi imessar uɣennej ujar zi min sskanen ɣar uɣennij s yixf-ines. Nkessi-dd zg-s manaya:

  • « Chanson: ourar, izri, pl. izran.

Chanter: ghennaj» (L. Justinard, 1926: 116).

  • « Poésie : ourar, tɣennajt, izri, pl. izran

Poète : bab mourar, pl. acht bab mourar ; chcheikh itneḍdam izran, le cheikh improvise. » (L. Justinard, 1926: 149).

G umezgaru nettzemmam ict tannayt x tezgelt tasenmarrayt – tamsislit miz ittwari umyag ɣar L. Justinard, uxa ad nini qa tezmer tezgelt-a ad tili tekka-dd zeg ukessi n Justinard i umyag-a zeg waddad arusmid n “ɣennej” mindeg ittedwal d “ɣennaj” (ittɣennaj, nettɣennaj, ttɣennajent…), niɣ ad tili tekka-dd zeg udwal n Justinard ɣar yeḍrisen ttwarin-as-dd zeg yewdan d igzennayen ɣrin.

Zdat ma ad nexzer g unamek d uremmus miz dd-yusa umyag “ɣennej” d yirem n “tɣennajt” ɣar L. Justinard, ittxessa-aneɣ ad nessijj x min ɣa ilin ԑnan “izri” d “urar” d “bab n wurar” d “ccix” d “neḍḍem” i dd-yusan s yinumak d yiremmusen bberwin gi tefransist, uxa ad negg asijji-ya maknaw d abrid ɣar ufessi d usefsi i yinumak d yiremmusen ɣar dixel n uxezzer anaẓur amaziɣ n Arif i ten- dd-ijjin.

Urar di Arrif; talwiḥt n Sekkaki.

Ttbanen Yirifiyen n wassa maknaw dewlen ssexdamen “urar” s unamek i ɣur-s ɣar “tmeɣra“; tameɣra-ya tezmer ad tili n lemlak mindeg imessar usemɣer i teslit d usli, amux i tezmer ad tili ԑawed n tlalit n uḥermuc (ssabeԑ), niɣ n ṭṭhart i das-tteggen i uḥermuc, niɣ ad tili n tfaskiwin timasɣanin d tinn tinegdudin d tinn tinaẓurin… ; inumak-a ttijjan tnayen-a n yermawen (urar d tmeɣra) ad ilin d ikniwen ig isskanen ɣar tilawt tanamakt d ict; tilawt-a tamatrart ur iqqim ittwasexdam dag-s “urar” s unamek n “poésie” ig idewlen sskanen ɣur-s “tqessist” d “yezli“.

S uxezzer aytimuluji, ttwaliɣ maknaw “urar” tuɣa isskan ɣar unamek i ɣur-s ɣar “lferḥ” ig idewlen ittwasexdem kid-s assa s unamek n wurar d tmeɣra ; “urar” ikka-dd zeg uẓwar “R” ig isskanen ɣar tirart / leԑyart d lferḥ d lefraḥet, qa ԑad ɣur-neɣ ijj n yirem ig isskanen ɣar unamek n “lferḥ” gi Tmaziɣt ; irem-a netta d “tumert” i dd-ikkin zeg uẓwar “R” s tmerniwt n uzwir “m-” ig isskanen ɣar waddad attwaɣ n umyag, uxa xmi neqqar qa « tamɣart temmer » qa necnin nesskan zg-s ɣar usefreḥ i das iga ci n ḥedd niɣ ci n tmeslayt i temɣart, d aya i ɣa yilin ijja Irifiyen ad xelfen irem n “urar” s yirem n “lferḥ” i xaf-s dd-yudfen zi teԑrabt s umentil n umyanaw anamak i ɣa yili ittegg-asen yirem n wurar g uswir n usskan iseggden ɣar ci n tmeslayt. S uya i dd-ttasen wurar d tirart, deg yinumak n wassa, maknaw d irmawen ig isskanen ɣar lferḥ lefraḥet (tumert), ya gi tirart n yimeẓẓyanen, niɣ gi tirart n yiԑezriyen, niɣ gi tirart tanaẓurt n Lecyux d Yimedyazen d yimeɣnaj.

Anamek-a n “lferḥ” ttwaliɣ-t s yixef-ines immerni-dd zeg unamek amenzay n uẓwar “R” ig ittbanen isken gi tmenzayt ines ɣar temhelt n uslali d uxelleq d tiji d usaker d usneflul.

Deg yict temyadast i giɣ i uẓwar “R“, g usati n yict tɣuri giɣ-tt x min ɣa tili teԑna “Ralla Buya” g umezruy n Yirifiyen (ԑad ur teffiɣ tɣuri-ya), ufiɣ maknaw aẓwar “R” ila isskan ɣar uslali d uxelleq d tiji d usaker d usneflul, ad nini isskan ɣar min dd ittwajjen n yisefka n umaḍal ameẓray d min dd-ijja zeg-sen ufgan gi tekli-ines tamernayt tameqqrant i dd-iwta zi zik n tillit-ines, inumak-a yina d netnin s yixf-nsen ig iqqimen ṭṭfen ar wassa g uẓwar “R” d min zg-s dd-ikkin n tguriwin; qa amyag “aru” ԑad isskan ɣar temhelt i dd ittijjan ci n wudem (afgan, amuddir, tameslayt, agama…), qa xmi neqqar “tamɣart turu“, qa necnin neqqar zg-s qa tamɣart tejja-dd aḥermuc, ԑawed xmi neqqar “tacejjart turu“, qa necnin neqqar zg-s qa tacejjart tejja-dd ci n uɣmay ittmecca niɣ ur ittmecci. Uxa d aya ԑawed ig ijjin Imaziɣen ad semman azgen ameqqran n lecjur ig ittarun / isseɣmayen s yesmawen n tewtemt, maca lecjur ur ittarun ttsemman-ten s yisem n uwtem; atiɣ ittedwal manaya ɣar ci n uxezzer d amenzay bezzaf, ila ittwala tarawt maknaw d tamhelt i tettegg tewtemt bla awtem.

Tameɣra gi Arrif, d amkan mani fettlen izlan

Ula d tamhelt n “tira” i dd-ikkin zi “aru” niɣ “ari“, ila xezzren ɣur-s Yimaziɣen maknaw d tiji i nettijja i tiwecca maknaw d tizaɣarin i daneɣ dd ɣa isfekkren min ɣa nezmer ad nettu necnin d wayyawen-nneɣ.

Aẓwar “R” isskan ɣar uxelleq n tmeslayt, ɣar umaynu i dd-nettijja zi min illan, s uya i ttwaliɣ ad yili unamek d uremmus n “urar” iggur g usati-ya anamak – anermus; qa “urar” ya netta d aɣennij ittwasaker-dd / ittwajj-dd / ittwaxleq-dd, ya netta d awalen ttwasakren-dd / ttwajjen-dd / ttwaxelqen-dd, ittɣima isskan ɣar temhelt n tiji d uxelleq d usaker n umaynu zi min illan, uxa xmi dd nettsakar-izlan, qa necnin nxelleq dd inumak d imaynuten i umaḍal ameẓray zeg yinumak ttwassnen ɣar yewdan, inumak-a i dd ittwaxlaqen i umaḍal amaḍal sskanen lebda ɣar uxezzer d amaynu yuwi-t-id bab-ines, d amenni ula xmi dd-nettijja llɣa d amaynu zi bezzaf-nni i nesla n llɣa gi tudert-nneɣ. Qqaԑ inumak-a sskanen ɣar tilawt n temhelt n tiji d uxelleq d uslali d usaker n umaynu zi min illan gi tilawt.

Ttwaliɣ anamek-a maknaw d netta illan d anamek amenzay n “urar“; aneggaru-ya ila isskan ɣar temhelt n usaker s umata, d temhelt n usaker n uɣennij (awal d llɣa) s wuslig, maca gi tefrekt-a ila ԑad iqqen s waṭṭas ɣar tudert tamasɣant tamenzayt i tt-irrin x yimeṭṭawen gi qqaԑ tiwilatin-nsen tinegdudin, uxa atiɣ ula d amyag “ru” iksi anamek n usehwi n yimeṭṭawen zeg usati-ya amasɣan mindeg isbezzez ixf-ines uɣennij amasɣan amenzay i tt-itterran x yimeṭṭawen amux ɣa nẓer ԑad, s uya i qqimen yimeṭṭawen gi qqaԑ amezruy n ufgan sskanen ɣar uḥdajji i dd-ittekken zi tedrusi n tzemmar d tiggʷdi zeg yimal amaffar, uxa ԑawed ula d iɣennijen imenzayen qqimen ttettren i umaḍal amaffar ad nnureẓment tewwura n lxir d laman ig issaggʷajen x ufgan tadrusi-ya n tzemmar d tiggʷdi zi min ur ittwili (amaḍal amaffar d yimal).

Gi ci n tefrekt zi tferkiwin i ddren lejdud nneɣ imenzayen, ad imsar i uɣennij ijj n wufuɣ zeg wuḍuf nni ameqqran i gin g umaḍal amaffar d wakud amaffar ɣar uɣennej x tmeslayin llant ssefraḥent, niɣ ufuɣ ɣar usaker n lefraḥet zi min illan, uxa ssa i ɣa yili iksi “wurar” anamek nni n uɣennij n lferḥ d lefraḥet i ɣa iqqimen iḍeffer tameɣra gi twengimt n Yimaziɣen, uxa s uyenni i ɣa qqimen “urar” d “tmeɣra” maknaw d ikniwen i war ittemsebḍin x wayawya, waxxa aẓwar “MƔR” isskan ɣar min imɣaren.

Timɣarin tirifiyen ttɣennajent izlan

Gi ci n tefrekt nneɣni, zi ssinni, ad immuti unamek n wurar zeg unamek n uslali d uxelleq d tiji d usaker d usneflul ɣar unamek n lefraḥet (tumert), zi ssinni ad immuti ɣar unamek n uɣennij ig iqqimen gi qqaԑ tiferkiwin-a timernayin maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n tmeɣriwin, uxa d manaya i ɣa yilin ijja “urar” ad isken ɣar tmelda n tumert d ufaris n uɣennej i dd-ittekken zi tirart i tteggen yewdan deg wuraren ḥuma ad ferḥen.

Qqaԑ tiferkiwin-a i dd-wtin lejdud-nneɣ, iqqim uɣennij maknaw d allal ameqqran i tteḥdajjan gi qqaԑ tiwilatin n tudert ig imradafen gi twilatin timasɣanin, uxa ula d aɣennij ixemmel ɣar dixel-ines qqaԑ timffirin n usenti-ines d umerni-ines gi qqaԑ tiferkiwin ig iwta ufgan zi wami illa.

Ttwaliɣ “urar“, i dd-ikkin zeg uẓwar n yict tergalt “R” ig illan d amenzay, maknaw iԑqel i tferkiwin timenzayin n tutlayt tayemmat manis dd-tekka Tmaziɣt. Atiɣ teqqim i Yegzennayen zi Tmaziɣt Tamenzayt i ssiwlen yegrawen imenzayen imaziɣen manis dd-kkin, izemmer ad yili zeg yermawen i dasent-iraḥen i Tmaziɣin nneɣni n Arif wami ɣa kkent ad sxedment “izri” maknaw d irem ig isskanen ɣar tgezzumt tawennayt – tameɣnajt.

Amawal arifi n wassa ur iqqim issexdam ɣir “izri” (izli) s unamek d uremmus ig isskanen ɣar wawalen iquḍaḍen ig ittemrusan x tnayen n tseddarin mindeg dd- ittas umsada d ijj g uneggaru n kul taseddart [Xzer, gi tmeslayt-a n tseddarin, min inna uneɣmas Musṭafa Buziyyani (2002) d yimerzuten Ԑ. Ԑezzuzi ag M. Lwali (2005) d Ԑebdessamad Majuqi (2014) d J. Abernus (2017) x usnay asnalɣan – asnesɣal]; izmer yezli ad yili d ameɣnaj (ittwaɣennaj s uẓawan) amux ig izmer ad yili d ameqqar (ittwaqqar s uẓawan). Ag uɣezdis n usexdem i “izri“, nettaf ԑawed asexdem i “tqessist” ig isskanen ɣar wawalen izegraren ig issexdamen amsada imun gi 8 n tseddarin sennej ; taqessist tezmer ad tili d tameɣnajt (tettwaɣennaj s uẓawan) niɣ ad tili d tameqqart (tettwaqqar bla aẓawan).

Mala “urar” yusa-dd isskan ɣar uremmus s yixf-ines i ɣur-s ɣar “izri“, qa wenn itteggen “urar” niɣ “izri” ittwasemma deg yiger n Yegzennayen n wakud-nni s “bab n wurar” [“bab mourar” amux dd-tusa ɣar Justinard], gt. “act bab n wurar” (ayt bab n wurar).

Tilawt i nufa ɣar usexdem i das-tteggen Yirifiyen i yirem n “urar“, gi Tmaziɣt n Arif n wassa, s unamek n “tmeɣra” d “lferḥ” waha, nettat d tilawt s yixf ines i nufa ɣar yisem n “ayt bab n wurar” ig idewlen ittwaqqar assa i yayt bab n tmeɣra niɣ i yayt bab n lferḥ, urid i yayt bab n yezli.

Ԑawed yuwi-dd L. Justinard ict tguri ԑad tettwasexdam ar wassa s uremmus miz dd-tusa g umawal-ines, nettat d “ccix” (“chcheikh“) i dd-yusan s unamek n “azlawi” ig isskanen gi tesniremt tatrart n Tmaziɣt n Arif ɣar wenn itteggen niɣ ittarin izlan niɣ tiqessisin.

Irem n “ccix” s yixf-ines ittban yusa-dd s unamek ibberwi ɣar L. Justinard ; mala isskan gi tseḍmiwin n Yimedyazen ɣar wenn itteggen izlan niɣ iɣennijen, qa anamek-ines amenzay urid d azlawi (s unamek n wenni itteggen izlan niɣ tiqessisin), maca netta isskan ɣar unamek n “ameqqran” niɣ “amɣar” niɣ “agʷerram“.

Imedyazen di Larbeɛ n Tewrirt (Hart: 1956)

G usati-ya, ttiydareɣ-dd min day-inna umedyaz Ḥasan n tseḍma n Tarwa n Ccix Ɛisa, d Cεayeb n Ccix Muḥend, d Ccix Ɛmaruc, deg yict tɣimit ggiɣ-tt kid-sen gi ci n 2009 gi Studyu n Munir Axsim (Via Records) [temqabal tɣimit-a ag uzemmem-inu i tesfift-inu n tqessisin g ustudyu-ya]; imedyazen-a irifiyen nnan-ay qqaԑ idsen qa “azlawi” n tseḍma netta d wenni umi neqqar “Ccix” (amɣar n tseḍma), minzi -amux nnan- qa tumant n ubani n kul taseḍma n Yimedyazen teqqen ɣar ubani n uzlawi i tt ɣa issugren maknaw d amɣar niɣ maknaw d Ccix, ad nini qa taseḍma n Yimedyazen tettban-dd ag ubani n uzlawi amsadur i dag-s ittilin d Ccix.

Tumant n Lecyux d Yimedyazen, s min daneɣ-nnan Yimedyazen-a irifiyen, nettat d tamerselt tazerfant umi ɣar tametti-ines i tt-ixeddmen, i dag-s itteddren, i zg-s ittwalan amaḍal. Neqqar x Lecyux d Yimedyazen qa netnin d tumant, minzi am nettat am tumant tamasɣant ig ittekken zi tefrekt n usecyex (المشْيَخة) ig isbezzazen ad yili Ccix d yemseḍfaren (Imedyazen) d yizerfan n tudert d twuriwin d uxezzer nsen ɣar umaḍal.

D aya ig ijjin ula d Imedyazen-a mig qqimeɣ ad ferzen jar tseḍmiwin n Yimedyazen d tseḍmiwin n Lecyux; tiseḍmiwin n Yimedyazen netnin d tiseḍmiwin n yimeddazen n wallun d ṭṭbel, ad nini d imseḍfaren ig ittԑawaden min nnan Lecyux-nsen waha, maca taseḍma n Lecyux tetteḥdajja ijj usegged d ameqqran i yizerfan i tt-issegguren am Ccix ig issegguren taseḍma, d Yimedyazen-ines i kid-s itteṭṭfen llɣa s wallalen iẓawanen; tiseḍmiwin-a n Lecyux ɣursen timelsa-nsen d yensayen-nsen d yizerfan-nsen i ten-iferrzen x tseḍmiwin timeɣnajin nneɣni ig ittnuquren g Arif…

D manaya i day-wekkden ula d aneɣmas – azlawi Ԑali Azeḥḥaf d umerzu Ԑebdessamad Majuqi gi yunyu 2024, deg yict tɣimit tamassant i nga s tlata idneɣ gi Lqehwa n Bazilik gi Lḥusima. Tnayen-a n yimeddukal ig itterran taynit aṭṭas i tumanin ferzen-ay jar tumant n Lecyux d tumant n Yimedyazen, ḥesben tumant n Lecyux d tamajhadt x tumant n Yimedyazen, ԑawed nnan-ay qa Lecyux tteggen taẓuri-nsen gi tfugliwin timatayin timeqqranin, ɣur-sen arruḍ-nsen imefrazen x yenni n Yimedyazen, ɣur-sen izerfan d imefrazen gi mux ttbeddan d mux beṭṭan lxedmet ɣar dixel n tseḍma n Ccix.

Ag min neẓra iԑda, iqseḥ ad aneɣ-iwc “ccix” anamek i ɣur-s ɣar “poète“, minzi anamek i ɣur-s ɣar tguri-ya tafransist isskan ɣar wenn ig itteggen izlan d tqessisin bla ma ad ɣur-s tili tseḍma tameɣnajt niɣ bla ad ɣur-s tili tseḍma n Yimedyazen niɣ n Lecyux.

S min nenna iԑda, isskan yirem n “ccix” ɣar umeqqran niɣ ɣar umɣar n tseḍma n Yimedyazen, maca irem-a, niɣ -nican- afriz-a, ḥuma ad t-iksi ci n umedyaz niɣ ci n umeɣnuj, qa ixess-as ad ɣuress tili tmussni temɣar deg yiger-a, ad yili ittegg nnit iɣennijen n tseḍma s llɣa d wawalen, ԑawed ixess-as ad yili isseggur nnit taseḍma-ines mindeg dd-ttbanen Yimedyazen maknaw d imeddazen i t-iḍeffren waha.

Tumant-a n Lecyux tettban temmut g Arif, ula d Imedyazen gguren qeṭṭan cwit cwit wami ɣa tenneqleb tilawt n tmeɣriwin timatrarin n Arif, s uya i tetteḥdajja ict tarrayt n taynit d tameqqrant, ad tettwasɣar lxedmet-nsen deg yisinagen n uẓawan n Arif d Lmeɣrib d berra ḥuma ad dd-banent tsutiwin id as ɣa igen asetrer adu tfawin n tilawt tamatrart d min tetteḥdajja n umaynu d ubeddel i min d as dd ssiwḍen Lecyux d Yimedyazen i wassa.

Ag uɣezdis n uqewwer n L. Justinard (1926) i yirem n “ccix“, iqewwer-dd ԑawed amyag “neḍḍem” (« chcheikh itneḍdam izran » amux dd-tusa g umawal- ines) ig isskanen ɣar usaker n yezlan. Amyag-a yudef-dd ɣar Tmaziɣt n Arif zi teԑrabt ig issexdamen amyag “نظّم” [naḍḍama] s unamek d ijj ig isskanen ɣar tigi niɣ ɣar usaker n tedyazt (izlan d tqessisin).

Amyag-a n “neḍḍem” nettaf-as, deg yegran irifiyen (Ayt Mezduy d teqbilin n Tmunt n Yeẓnagen n Srayer), isem n umeggay ig isskanen ɣar unamek id as newca gi Trifit Tamatrart i “uzlawi“, niɣ ɣar unamek i das-immewcen zik i “umedyaz“, ad nini isskan ɣar unamek n wenn itteggen izlan d tqessisin (azlawi) niɣ ɣar wenn itteggen iɣennijen (amedyaz); isem-a n umeggay n “neḍḍem” netta d “aneḍḍam” (gt. “Ineḍḍamen“) i nufa gi tɣuri i das-iga uselmad amerzu Jamal Abernus (2006) i wammud n Maysa Racida Merraqi, iqqar uselmad-a amerzu wami ɣa issiwel x unebzez n ureẓẓem n usiwel x tumant tazaykut n Yineḍḍamen n Arif zdat ma ad nessers ci n tannayt tuzɣint d tasnawayt i termit tanedyazt n temnaḍt n Arif :

« Nessawal da x tumant n Yineḍḍamen i tuɣa yiriwen deg waṭṭas n teqbilin tiẓnagin n Arif (Ayt Mezduy d teqbilin n Tmunt n Yeẓnagen n Srayer), Ineḍḍamen a netnin d izlawiyen (شعراء) ig ittwassnen s usegged-nsen i tẓuri n tedyazt, deg yeswan n umeddeḥ d uzawer s wuslig, tettili tmelda n teḍyaft” maknaw d tamelda n tigi-nsen i tedyazin d umḥizwer g usedyez n tcuniyin nsen » (J. Abernus, 2006).

Zdat ma ad nexzer gi min inna umerzu x tumant n Yineḍḍamen, i ɣa yilin d taburjet-nneɣ ɣar tmussni n min ixs ad yini yirem n “aneḍḍam” g usatal arifi, uɣil ma ad nesken ɣar tmawt ig irẓem umerzu i usiru n uxezzer ɣar tumant-a. Iqqar umerzu, gi tmawt tamezgarut n teɣri-ines, zdat ma ad ten-isemma s “izlawiyen” (شعراء), gi teԑrabt, qa : « Tameslayt [n yineḍḍamen] rid teqqen ɣar yezlawiyen imsaduren am “Imedyazen“, anect i tettɣima d taramsut (هِوَايَة) mig tudrus temsadurt » (J. Abernus, 2006).

S min neẓra, iferrez J. Abernus (2006) jar tnayen n tseḍmiwin timeɣnajin timensayin n Arif, ad nini jar tseḍmiwin mix issiwel beԑda : tiseḍmiwin n Yimedyazen d tseḍmiwin n Yineḍḍamen ; tiseḍmiwin-a ifrez jar-asent s temsadurt (الاحتراف), ttbanen Yimedyazen -s min inna- maknaw netnin d tiseḍmiwin timsadurin ig ittseggaden tawuri-nsen tanaẓurt, maca Ineḍḍamen ttbanen maknaw d tiseḍmiwin timsadurin i war ikessin asegged n twuri-nsen tanaẓurt gi taynit-nsen.

Da, nettaf ixef-nneɣ nettwala tameslayt s uxezzer-a i dd-yuwi umerzu J. Abernus (2006), uxa ad nini qa Ineḍḍamen ttabanen maknaw d izlawiyen ujar zi min llan d imeɣnaj imajhaden niɣ d imeccaten imajhaden n wallalen n uẓawan, manaya nettaf-it xmi daneɣ-iqqar umerzu qa Ineḍḍamen-ttbanen dd gi tmelda n “teḍyaft” mig ttseggaden tadyazt n umeddeḥ d uzawer s wuslig.

S min neẓra iԑda, isskan umyag “neḍḍem” ɣar unamek s yixf-ines i ɣur-s ɣar umyag « نظّم » n teԑrabt ig isskanen ɣar temhelt n usaker n yezlan (المقطوعات الشعرية) niɣ tiqessisin (القصائد), uxa d wa d anamek umi ɣar isskan umeggay “aneḍḍam” ig issknen ɣar wenn itteggen izlan niɣ awalen n yiɣennijen niɣ tiqessisin. D wa d anamek s yixf-ines i nufa ɣar J. Abernus (2006) i daneɣ-innan qa Ineḍḍamen ttwassnen s usegged-nsen i tẓuri n tedyazt (izlan d tqessisin), ag uɣezdis n uqewwer-ines i yict tqessist tameɣnajt mindeg ittzawar ddcar n Yayt Buzemmur (zi teqbilt n Yayt Mezduy) x tissar i kid-s iga Ԑmar n Ziyyan. [Izemmer wenn ixsen ad iɣer taqessist-a d min xaf-s inna umerzu, ad idwel ɣar J. Abernus (2006)].

Tikermin i temyadasin-a i nga i yinumak d yiremmusen n “urar” d “bab n wurar” d “ccix” d “neḍḍem“, ig iqqnen ɣar wawalen umi imessar uɣennej d tirart s llɣa d uẓawan, ad nemmuti luxa ɣar tigi n temyadast i yinumak d yiremmusen iqqnen ɣar uxezzer afransis n L. Justinard ɣar uɣennij arifi.

Mala amyag “ɣennej” yusa-dd, ɣar L. Justinard (1926), s unamek miz t-nessen assa, uxa ad yili ifrez mliḥ jar wawal ameɣnaj (izri, urar) d uɣennij ig ismunan ɣar dixel-ines awal d llɣa d uẓawan ig itteḥdajjan tirart tmun (amyag “ɣennej“), maca qa tamukrist mig da nemmers nettat d asskan n “tɣennajt” ɣar wawalen ittwaɣennajen, urid ɣar uɣennij i nettwala maknaw d afaris ig ismunan ɣar dixel-ines awal d llɣa d uẓawan.

Ma d tamukrist n tmaziɣt niɣ d tamukrist n tefransist?

Ttwaliɣ maknaw tafransist ur tuwiḍ ci ad telqef buḥbel n yinumak d yiremmusen n tguriwin d yermawen n Tmaziɣin mix texdem, qa uḍuf n tefransist gi “chanson” d “poésie” weḥḥed-sen, g usati n tmewca n yinumak ifransisen ikniwen i min ufin gi Tmaziɣt, indu -wuḍuf- tikermin-as azgen ameqqran n tmuffirin tinermusin timaziɣin i kid-sen dd-uwin waṭṭas n yermawen zi zik n uxezzer amaziɣ ɣar umaḍal nsen ameẓray.

Maɣar ?

Irem n “tɣennajt” ittban isskan ɣar wawal ameɣnaj ig izemren ad yili d izli n tnayen n tseddarin ; izli ikessi anamek n “tɣennajt” xmi ittili d ameɣnaj, ad nini qa izli ittili d “taɣennajt” xmi ittili ittwaɣennej (usmid) niɣ ittwaɣennaj (arusmid), maca izli ur ittili ci d “taɣennajt” mala ur ittwaɣennej, uxa d amya i ɣa nini qa aremmus n “tɣennajt” isskan ɣar tgezzumt tameɣnajt umi ɣar tnayen n tseddarin mindeg dd-ittas umsada d ijj g uneggaru n kul taseddart, ad nini mux nneɣni qa isskan ɣar yezli ameɣnaj.

Maca “urar” isskan ɣar yezli ittwaggen s tirart deg wurar (fête), anaw-a isbezzaz tirart s wallunen d wallalen nneɣni ḥuma izli ad iksi anamek d uremmus n “urar” ; “izri” (izli) iqqim -isskan zi lebda- ɣar tgezzumt nni tameẓẓyant n wawal ittwaqqaren s uɣennej (tesbezzaz amsada [rime, قافية] d anamun g uneggaru n kul taseddart zi tnayen ines n tseddarin, tesbezzaz ԑawed ad ɣur-s yili usɣel isegged) niɣ bla aɣennej (tesbezzaz amsada [rime] d anamun g uneggaru n kul taseddart zi tnayen ines n tseddarin, maca asɣel ur da illi d anebzaz).

Nuwi dd awal-a ḥuma ad nesken ɣar tmeslayt n usegged anermus amaziɣ i ndun yinumak n tefransist ɣar dixel n uxezzer anermus afransis, ssa i dd-kessiɣ tuzrift n urezzu-inu deg yimaḍalen n yiẓewran inmawalen ig izemmren weḥḥedsen ad aneɣ-fsin tamukrist n tmusni-nneɣ i yiẓewran inermusen imaziɣen d mux qqimen ɣemmin cwit cwit armi dd-innigran ɣar uberwi anermus deg yimiḍi wis 19 d 20 mig ɣa bdan ttemxumbulen ɣar dixel i tefransist d teԑrabt i xaf-sen issiwlen. S uya, timuffirin tinermusin timaziɣin ur tent-nettif ɣir deg yiẓewran inmawalen manis dd-kkin yermawen, uxa d amya weḥḥdes i ɣa nezmer ad nefhem min imsaren deg yimaḍalen inermusen imaziɣen n zik n zik.

Tikermin i temyadast-nneɣ tamyanawt i nga i yermawen i dd-yuwi L. Justinard (1926) zi Teqbilt n Yegzennayen, ad nemmuti ɣar Amidi Rinizyu (1932) ig igin ula d netta ict terzut x tentaliwin timaziɣin n Teẓnagt n Srayer d Arif d Yayt Yeznasen.

Timaynutin

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