22.1 C
Nador
Ttlat 28 Mayyu 2024

Mamec yegga yedwel “Boycott” zeg yisem n ttekniyet ɣer wemyag?

Buykut (niɣ s furmat-nnes : Boycott, buykuti..) d ijjen wawal nettsel-as kul ass d asmeɛni x tmeskanin niɣ ɣer tuzelt i imunen kuntra i ca n uprudwi, ca n wemdan, niɣ ɣer ca n ddewla.

D ijjen tenfalit d tagraɣlant i d-immalen tigawin i yettwasxedmen zɣer tseḍmiwin maḥend ad beddent deg wudem n ca n tmeslayin min xef netteḥsab wer ttqidint.

Yudef wawal-a i twalat tamezwarut ɣer umawal n Tenglizit s adu i yisem n “Boycott”, maca iẓuran n wawal-a iqqars-d zeg yisem n ijjen uterras ila yella d aɛeskri d angelizi umi qqaren : Charles Cunningham Boycott.

Deg umeggaru n lqern 19, ttuɣa Boycott d ijjen zeg iɛeskriyen iqdimen di lgic abriṭani, mamec i t-ttuɣa d ijjen i isegguren yiger n ijjen bu wagla di ẓelmeḍ-usammer n Irlanda, ttuɣa yudef deg ijjen wemseksi aked ifellaḥen i ttuɣa ikerran tamurt ɛlaḥsab ca n tfadiwin d uxelles n lekra n ddmani-nni.

Amseksi-nni i kid-s ggin, wer t-ttuɣi bu dag-s ddenf, maca ẓlin-t, qennten-t weḥḥd-s, wer kid-s ittemsurruf ḥedd, buykutan-t, wer yufi wi das ɣa imejren min yeẓẓu.

Deg umeggaru n iseggusa n 1880, bdan jjurnalat ibriṭaniyen ttɛawaden tameslayt-a tanita, xenni sxedmen isem n ttekniyet-nnes maḥend ad mmlen itaktiken n ixemmasen-nni, ar mani i yedwel awal-a yeṭṭef amkan-nnes deg imawalen n waṭṭas n yelsawen.

Aqebṭan “Boycott”.

Ilul Charles Cunningham Boycott deg useggʷas n 1832 di Norfolk, deg Wangliz. Ila qqaren-as Boycatt i isem n ttekniyet-nnes, maca wer nessin mamec temsar twacunt-nnes tbeddel isem n ttekniyet wami Charles ila ɣer-s 9 n iseggusa.

Aqebṭan Boycott.

Ila tecqa-t tudert taɛeskrit, ixes ad yadef ɣer tkadimit tageldant taɛeskrit deg useggʷas n 1848, maca rxun-as di 1849 zegga i yesqeḍ deg yirim. Xelli amenni, twacunt-nnes txelles aṭṭas n ttmenyat ḥuma ad t-snejḥen, manaya ttuɣa tteggen-tt aṭṭas deg wakud-nni maḥend ad yedwel aɛeskri d aqebṭan deɣya deɣya.

Maca wer ɣer-s teqqim bu taynit ɣer lɛesker awerni i tlata n iseggusa, zi senni ila ixes ad yedwel d bab n tmurt.

Iraḥ ad yezdeɣ ɣer tegzirt n Achill, qibalt i ugeddim n ijjen wemkan umi qqaren Mayo, deg yeẓẓelmeḍ-usammer n Iralnda, mani i yeɛlem dinni timura, yekrez-itent waxxa ttuɣa lḥal yeqqseḥ cwayt. Iqqim dinni 17 n iseggusa, maca ttuɣa ixes ad ibeddel amkan-nnes maḥend ad yemneɛ ca n tmurt tselleḥ kter i tfellaḥt.

Tettuqar-as-d deg useggʷas n 1872, mani John Crishton, ameqqran n Erne, i ttuɣa iɛelmen ca n 15 000 hiktar deg Irlanda, ttuɣa irezzu x ijjen izemmer ad isugur timura-nnes di Mayo. Kuntratru-nni ila dag-s ad as-temmewc 250 hiktar, d ijjen taddart d tasebḥant s ca n ifitalen.

Bu tmura-nni ila ixes ad ɣer-s ilin inglizniyen maḥend ad ssuguren timura-nnes. Ad yili isem n “aqebṭan” iɛawen-it maḥend ad yeṭṭef kuntratu-nni.

Ɛlaḥsab mamec ttɛawaden ibiyugrafen, ttuɣa Boycott ittamen belli timura-nni n inublen s lḥeqq n sidi Rebbi. Ila ittemsurruf aked iwdan bla ma a x-asen iḥseb. Illa wer t-iḥemmel ula d ijjen deg wakud-nni.

Mamec deɣya deɣya iwesseq inni wer ittxellisen deg wakud, mamec ttuɣa i x-asen ittegg x yiri-nnsen ibrusiten x walu, am mala ca n zzaylet teclex di tmurt-nnes niɣ ca n ijjen yus-d ɣer lxedmet iɛeṭṭel, ca n twalatin, ittegg-asen abrusi kter zi min mennɛen d ttexliset.

Amseksi aked tmunt n ifellaḥen

Deg umeggaru n iseggusa n 1870, yewta buheyyuf Irlanda mani wer qqimen ca ifellaḥen ɣer-sen lɣillet am qbel. Manaya yejja ifellaḥen a ɣer-sen yili imxumbal ḥuma ad xellsen lekra n tmurt-nnsen.

Maca deg useggʷas n 1879, ijjen zi tarwa-nni n ifellaḥen i ixeddmen ɣer Mayo, yegga tamunt tanamurtn ifellaḥen Irlandiyen maḥend ad yessenqes zi ttaman n lekra, ad sbedden awsaq n twacunin zi tmura i ikerrzen. Teqqen tmunt-a ula ɣer uzarug n Irlanda, maca ila xsen ɣer umeggaru ad ɛelmen timura-nni ikerrzen.

Inni ikerran tamurt zi dduk n Erne, ttren-as ad yessehwa lekra ɣer 25%, maca dduk yewc-asen 10% waha, isellem-as i Boycott ad d-yejmeɛ leflus n lekra, ad yewseq inni wer ixellsen ca.

Amseksi aked ifellaḥen

Ɣer umeggaru wesqen tlata n twacunin, zi senni tamunt n ifellaḥen tebda lxedmet-nnes. Yenna umeqqran n tmunt i ttuɣa yellan d aberlamani umi qqaren Charles Stewart Parnell, deg wawal-nnes “jjem-ten ttrankil.. Ɛezlem-ten x yewdan, axmi ileqqef-iten wajjiḍ…”

Yufa Boycott ixef-nnes weḥḥed-s di jjmaɛet. Ula d ijjen ma issaɣ x-as sselɛet-nnes, ula d ijjen ma iznuz-as. Ila wer izemmer ad yelqeḍ niɣ ad yemjer lɣillet-nnes niɣ ad isebbeb aked imezdaɣ. Ula d faktur wer iqqim issakkʷaḍ-as tibratin.

Ila ifellaḥen imeqqranen ggʷden ad tḍeyyeɛ sselɛet-nnsen, xenni sekken-asen ca n xemsin n wergaz ḥuma ad ten-ɛawnen. Mamec ttuɣa dasen-sekken ca n 900 n uɛeskri ḥuma a ten-ḥḍan wer ittuqiɛ bu ca n ttaɛeddu zeg imezdaɣ.

Mala nekker a neḥseb ɣastu d txessura n min ittwaggen amenni, a naf belli ayenni merra manaya inqam-d x-asen s 10 000 ujunih asterlini maḥend ad snejmen lxuḍert i d-inaqmen s 350 ujunih asterlini waha.

Ijjen wawal d jjdid

Tameslayt-a n ubuykut tebda tedwel d ijjen lexbar ittwazzuzzer deg Irlanda, di Nnegliz d ca n tmura-nniḍen d tinglufuniyin. Bdan ttbanen-d ineqqisen x “ubyukt” deg Irlanda merra min yewcin ijjen jjehd d ameqqran i ifellaḥen.

Wer nessin melmi i yudef wawal n “ubuykut” ɣer umawal, maca wer din ttuɣi bu ca n wawal i yessawalen x weẓlay, d usiggʷed zi ca n tmslayt niɣ zi ca n bnadem, maca ssidfen awal-a deg umawal n Oxford aseggʷas n 1888.

Awal n “buykut” idwel yudef deg waṭṭas n yelsawen min wer ɣer yelli ca n wawal irwes dag-s di wa. Ca n wawal izemmer ad isnumel ca n tigawt am zi tigawin-a tina deg wemkan n lxedmet niɣ deg yiger asertan.

Ma min iqqnen ɣer Charles Cunningham Boycott, yedwel ɣer Wangliz, dinni i yemmut deg useggʷas n 1897, teqqim twacunt-nnes teḥḍa isem-a amen teksi s isitam ɣer yimal.

NB :

S Tmaziɣt, yegga-as DGLAI i wemyag “boycotter: Bennez“, isem-nnes : “abennez”. Wer nessin mani qqaren awal-a i d-yewwya usinag n Tmaziɣt.

Maca ittif a nessexdem awal-a amek yella di tutlayt tamezwarut manis i d-ittwagem: D isem “Buykut” d wemyag-nnes : buykuta, tt.buykuta. S uyenni nebḍa jar “Boycott” i yellan d isem n bnadem d isem “buykut” di Tmaziɣt.

Tala: BBC.

Timaynutin

C.Andic
C.Andic
Chahid Andich

Fser-itt