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Letnayen 17 Yunyu 2024

Mamec yegga Franku isbedd timexsa jar tespunya d irifiyen?

Ispunya, deg wakud n Franku, ssersen fus-nnsen x ca n tebratin uran-tent Tispunya i Irifiyen i ila ttexsent. Tibratin-nni n tmexsa i d-immalen ijjen uɣezdis zeg umezruy i ttuɣa ḥessben d ṭṭabu di Spanya takulunyalt.

Iwa melmi i d ɣa tdewled ɣer Spanya?” I tura Carmela di tebrat-nnes i ijjen unubyu-nnes d Arifi, manaya immal-d ila tecca x-as lemsames.

Zi Granada, tura-as deg useggʷas n 1944 : “Aqqa ad ayi-tinid ila txezzred di ca n tmeṭṭut-nniḍen”.

Maca argaz-a umi tura tabrat-a ɛemmers ma iwweḍ ad tt-iɣer. Tabrat-a i tura Carmela ɛemmers ma tiweḍ ɣer Arrif.

Deg wemkan n uya, ttwafent tebratin-a ttwaxemmlent deg warcif Aspanyu, deg ijjen txabcet teccur s tebratin n tmexsa d arriḍa jer temɣarin Tispunya d inni i ttexsent zeg Irifiyen.

Tibrarin-a i yettwaṭṭfent ttuɣa ttwarint jar 1930 d 1950, mmalent-id amezruy n “tmexsa” i ttuɣa yellan d ugdil (interdit) ɣer irgazen n Franku.

Ɛicrin iseggusa d udabu akulunyal aspanyu d netta isrusa ifassen-nnes x tebratin-a n tmexsa.

Jjwawat-nni ila ɛemmren s wawalen n tayri d tmexsa, xenni ijjen temɣart zi Valencia tura: “Qa cciɣ-tt x-ak…”

Ci zi jjwawat-nni dag-sen ifuṭuten. Aṭṭas n temɣarin, amen ɛedlent ixef-nnsent, ila xsent ad mmlent i llif-nnsent mamec ggint. Icten qaɛ tessekk-as i llif-nnes ijjen ufuṭu amen tenya x backlit, d ijjen ufuṭu i di wer yelli amnus n tudert takuyast.

Merra tibratin-nni ttuɣa ḥḍant-tent ca n ibirukratiyen “min ɣer ttuɣa ul yedder”. Zi senni, ttwattunt jar tewriqin timessugurin (des documents administratifs) n rrutin.

Temmers x-asent tɛejjajt ar mani i tent-ufin imerzuten ikadimiyen; Josep Lluís Mateo Dieste d Nieves Muriel García zi senni fesren-tent.

Kul tabrat dag-s ijjen wudem zi min ismunen iwdan-nni, maca kul icten tettɛawad ɛawed x ddenf-nni i ufint zzat-sent.

Ispunya ggin merra min ɣer-sen d tizemmar ḥuma ad bedden d aẓru deg webrid n ina i yettexsen ayawya.

Deg ijjen uwardi yus-d deg useggʷas n 1937: « Ixess lemlak jar iɛeskriyen Irifiyen d temɣarin Tispynya wer ittili.»

Amek yettwassen, tedwel Spanya teṭṭef Arrif deg useggʷas n 1912, amen tebḍa Lmuɣrib aked Fransa.

Imaziɣen n Arrif bedden deg wudem n Spaniya, di min ittwassnen s girra n Arrif i yebdan jar 1921 d 1926 mani ljic aspanyu yerreẓ deg waṭṭas n twalatin x ufus n Mulay Muḥend.

Maḥend ad ɣelben Irifiyen, tiweḍ lḥukuma taspanyut ad terni zi nnumru n arrigularis, ad tespules aṭṭas n irifiyen di ljic-nnes.

Deg iseggusa n 1930, ila Spanya teṭṭef Arrif zi Azila ar igmiren n Dzayer ɛlaḥal x usammer-nnes. Amkan-a ila tesseggur-it Spanya, tegga zi Tiṭṭawin d tamaẓunt-nnes.

Uca di lmḥalla n uzɣenɣan, di 1936, mani iwweḍ Francisco Franco ad yeqleb leḥkam x lḥukuma tamegdudt, yebda umquṭṭus jar Ispunya.

Zegga i tleɛleɛ girra di Spanya, sekken luluf n Irifiyen maḥend ad wten aqerṭas aked Franku.

Bla iɛeskriyen, ttuɣa din akid-sen imeḥḍaren, isebbaben, d ixeddamen-nniḍen i ttuɣa yellan di tneddam merra n Spanya, waxxa di lkampawat i yeggʷjen.

Merra manaya, minzi Arrif wer yeggʷij ca aṭṭas x Spanya, yalleh s ca n 14 klm i zi yeggʷej ucal n Arrif x wenni n Ibiriya. Maci am waṭṭas n tmura i teṭṭef Spanya i ttuɣa x-as i yeggʷjen.

Xenni, mani mma raḥen Irifiyen ad mmelqan aked tespunya.

Di Salamanca, temmelqa ijjen temɣart qqaren-as Concha aked ijjen uɛeskri d Arifi qqaren-as Nasar ttuɣa-t din deg ijjen wemkan yudes.

Ttuɣa tecci-itt x-as, deg useggʷas n 1938, tura taspanyut-a i legrad n Nasar maḥend ad zzag-sen tetter ttesriḥ ḥma ad t-tawi. Maca ɣer iɛeskriyen Ispunya, am ddegg-a n wemsawaḍ ixess wer ittili qaɛ.

Wer jjin min wer nnin di lḥeqq n Concha, nnan x-as belli tewser, “d tɣurdut, tɛuffen am uyis n wasif (hippopotame), tezzuḥuf.”

Cekken ila zeɛma Nasar ittunuḍ-as i Concha minzi ɣer-s ijjen taddart waha, d aya i d-isfaqqen “timexsa-nnes tabulkanit (volcanique)”.

Iwarditen ttuɣa qqaren “ad ssersen iẓra deg webrid n yewdan-a”, ḥuma wer ten-ttejjin ad melken “bla ma ad ssufɣen ca n tewriqt i ɣa inin manaya nican”. D aya i d-yusin deg uwardi n 1937.

Amek yettwassen, ila Franku ttuɣa ittbedda x iɛeskriyen Irifiyen, uca wer ixes ca ad yegdel lemlak-nnsen zi Tespunya, maca ttuɣa isursa aṭṭas n yeẓra deg webrid-nnsen.

Ameknaw, mala ca n Tespanyut ttuɣa tettari i ca n Urifi, ataf ad as-gedlen (ils lui interdiraient) adaf ɣer Lmuɣrib.

Deg waṭṭas n twalatin, ttagin ad jjen Arifi-nni ad yadef Spanya. Xenni ataf ɛemmers ad munen.

Deg useggʷas n 1948, sbedden Ispunya di Zaragoza ijjen tebrat jar Carmen d llif-nnes Ɛbedsslam i ttuɣa yellan di Tiṭṭawin. Xenni, gedlen x-asen s tnayen idsen ad ẓwan ɣer ujemmaḍ.

Di tebrat-a, tewca Carmen lexbar x yelli-tsen i ɣa imeɣren bla ma ad tẓer baba-s qaɛ. Ixeddamen ispunya, qaɛ wer ksin taḥenjirt-nni jar-asen s leḥsab.

Maca mayemmi ttuɣa ttwalan ddegg-a n tmunit jar tispunya d irifyen s waṭṭas n useɛqar?

Minzi tadyulujit min xef temmers tadiktaturit n Franku ttuɣa-tt d tindeffert (réactionnaire).

Lḥukuma n Spanya ttuɣa-tt d tamizujinit (tekreh timɣarin), tḥeṭṭa anhezzi n temɣarin, tettagi ad tent-tejj ad afent lxedmet.

Tteggen ixef-nnsen axmi aqqa-ten aked tkatulikit. Uca timɣarin i yettawin imselmen ḥessben x-asent axmi wer uminent ca mliḥ di tmasiḥit.

Maca ssabab ameqqran n uya d min ttuɣa tettlaɣa Spanya « prestigio de raza » niɣ « Arrasa i yuɛlan».

Maḥend ad teqqim Spanya takulunyalt di Arrif, ixess ad teḥseb x ixef-nnes tuɛla lebda.

S minzi lḥukuma tefhem lemlak ila tamɣart ad teqqim adu ufus n wergaz-nnes. Uca mamec mma yegga ca n lemlak ataf ad yejj tamɣart Taspanyut adu ufus n wergaz-nnes Arifi.

Manaya, i ɣa iredlen ddsas n tmengart (domination) takulunyalt.

Maca ddegg-a n uḥeṭṭu d ddenf ttuɣa wer yelli ca mala irgazen Ispunya weyyen tirifiyin. Minzi am ddegg-a yettɛawad ittejja-dd jjehd akulunyal bla ma ad x-as ihudd.

Manaya ila wer yelli ca di Spanya waha, maca tiggʷdi zi lemlak n temɣarin tiwruppawiyin aked yergazen zi tkulunyaliyin ttuɣa-t ɣer merra ikulunyaliyen iwruppawiyen.

Fransa s ixef-nnes ttuɣa ttagin s waṭṭas x ddegg-a n markat n lemlakat.

Ttuɣa Ihulandiyen di tegzirin n Lhend n usammer d Ibriṭaniyen di Lhend, ila ttwalan belli lemlak jar temɣarin tiwruppawiyin d yergazen zi tkulunyaliyin itthudda x tudert-nnsen, uca ugin x-as bṭayṭay.

Ameknaw n tebratin-a mmalent-id belli qa ttuɣa din imelqiten d tiddukla d usikes qaɛ jar temɣarin tispunya d Irifiyen.

Mala nerẓem ddusi-ya, axmi nerẓem tewwurt x ijjen tudert, drus min x-as ttɛawaden tiwriqin n umezruy. Maca, aqqa azgen ameqqran n tebratin-a wer wwiḍent. Maca minzi iwdan-a ɛemmers wer xḍiren ad adfen deg warcif, min yejjin ssnen tudert-nnsen.

Zegga yeṭṭef Lmuɣrib timanit-nnes deg useggʷas n 1956, tbelleɛ lḥukuma n Tiṭṭawin tiwwura-nnes, ttun arcif-nnes merra.

Arcif-a isala ṭṭerf i Madrid, deg warcif anammas n tmessugurt di temdint tasdawant ‘Alcalá de Henares, am uzgen ameqqran n umezruy akulunyal aspanyu deg wafrika i yettwattun merra.

Xelli ttwafsrent ca n tebratin zegga ttyarita, maca aṭṭas n tenfas wer ttwissnent ɛad, aṭṭas n min innufren temmers x-as tɛejjajt.

Dr Arthur Asseraf d ijjen umrezzu n umezruy n Fransa n yiḍa, Tamazɣa d umiditirani.

Ttsawer-a n Matt Thomas ; Tala: Getty Images.

Tala: BBC.

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