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Jjemɛa 21 Yunyu 2024

Aɣennij amaziɣ n Arif: aremmus, tikli, anawen d tefraz (wis tnayen)

Yura-t: Sufyan Lhani

I. Aremmus n uɣennij

Iweṭṭa umerzu, ig ittarin s Tmaziɣt Tamirayt n Arif, deg waṭṭaṣ n tmukrisin xmi t-id-tettawi ad iwc iremmusen i yermawen d Irifiyen issexdam-iten lebda g umsawaḍ-ines awassan. Aweṭṭi-ya gi tmukrisin tinermusin timaziɣin ittijja-t ad iwḍa εawed g ufus n yesnumal inermusen imawjaden i dasen-immewcen i yermawen gi tutlayin nneɣni, uxa d amya ig irennu iweṭṭa gi tmukrisin nneɣni d timeqqranin, ci d tisniramin, ci d tiytimulujiyin, ci d tisenmezruyin, ci d tixezzarin, ci d tisefrazin, tettufu-dd kid-sent Tmaziɣt Tamirayt n Arif maknaw d azzarg mani ittweḍḍar ubrid ɣar tnammast tanermust tamaziɣt.

Ict zi tmukrisin timeqqranin mindeg mmersen yimerzuten Imaziɣen nettat d aɣelleb n tarrayt n taynit i “tedyazt tameɣnajt” g uraq n “uɣennij”; manaya ittedwal ɣar uttkal-nsen x yezlan d yenzan d tqessisin d tenfas timiwanin timensayin ḥuma ad zeg-sen ssersen tadesla tasaɣult i tefrekt i das-dd-izguren i tefrekt tamirayt ig ittwassnen s tsekla, maca qa attkal-a x tẓuriwin timiwanin g usatal n urezzu-nsen x tsaɣult tamezrayt haqa-t idwel iɣeṭṭl-aneɣ assa gi tmukrisin n yiremmusen d yegmiren-nsen isefrazen, ittɣima jar-asen uɣennij maknaw d anu i wagam n tedyazt waha ɣar tɣuriwin tisnammakin, urid d anu i wagam n tmagit-ines d uxezzer-ines ɣar umaḍal s tiṭawin n min xaf-s dd-ittemrusan n tmukrisin gi tilawt n tutlayt-ines urid gi tilawt n tutlayin n berra i ɣur-s dd-ixezzren zi tnammast-ines tadelsant.

Amxelweḍ-a anermus ijja-aneɣ-dd aṭṭaṣ n tɣuriwin ssawalent x yiferdisen n uɣennij bla ma ad ssnen ibriden n umsagar-nsen d beṭṭu-nsen ula d min xsen ad inin deg yiremmusen-nsen imaziɣen, ttɣiman ssenḍawen-dd awalen d tefraz ur llint g uɣennij arifi! D ta d tidet mix ittwekkad ula d Amedyaz Ḥasan n Tseḍma n Ccix Ɛisa, wami day-inna s uxeyyeq gi tɣimit taneggarut i kid-s giɣ g unebdu n 2023 gi Tḥanut n Ucerqi gi Lmuyyi n Lḥusima: “kenniw imerzuten texsem ad tettwalim deg-neɣ min ɣar-kum gi leεqel-nkum waha, maci min ɣar-neɣ gi leεqel-nneɣ necnin! Kenniw ur temsebḍim x yewdan n zik gi tmeslayt n tenfas i xafneɣ tettεawadem s tnayen idkum, ɣir kenniw tettweqqarem-aneɣ, netnin lla”!

G usekkir-a, ad geɣ tizemmar ḥuma ad fesyeɣ bezzaf n tmukrisin tinermusin – tinebridin – tusnisin ig ittijjan imerzuten ur ssinen min qqaren xmi daneɣ-ssawalen x uɣennij, aqa ssijjeɣ x kra n terzutin n yimeḥḍaren n Tɣuriwin Timaziɣin gi Wejda d Selwan, ufiɣ am netnin am temsirin timaziɣin timesdawin ig ittfafan ɣar usexdem n yiremmusen umi ur ɣar illi uxezzer amassan isegged gi Tmaziɣt, ttbanen-dd yiremmusen-a maknaw ttwasxedmen d irmawen, niɣ nican d tiguriwin, ujar zi min ttwasxedmen d iremmusen ɣur-sen axezzer yulleɣ ɣar yegran n usexdem-nsen amassan.

1. Tamesla d tsekla: iremmusen d yegmiren.

Amuti n tẓuriwin timaziɣin n wawal zi tmiwant ɣar tmirayt issers imerzuten imaziɣen n Arif ag yict tmukrist temɣar, teqqen ɣar uremmus n “Tsekla” i war gin Yirifiyen g umezruy-nsen aqdim, ssawaleɣ da x tsekla s uremmus ig isskanen ɣar tẓuri ig issexdamen asekkil maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n twuri-ines tanaẓurt.

tasekla teqqen ɣer usekkil.

Tamukrist-a tanermust ad dd-tban mliḥ xmi ɣa nẓer wi ɣa issxedmen irem n “tsekla tamiwant” miz ttbanen -atiɣ- xsen ad inin: taẓuri ig issexdamen imi (aqemmum) maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n twuri-ines tanaẓurt.

D wi ɣa issxedmen irem n “tsekla tamirayt” ammen nettat tasekla temmers deg yiman-ines x usekkil i tettwala maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n tmirayt, uxa xmi neqqar “tamirayt” qa necnin neqqar s unamek nneɣni “tasekla”.

Aremmus-a n “tsekla”, ig iksin asekkil maknaw d tifrezt-ines tadeslant, isrusa-aneɣ gi tmukrist n mux ɣa igg usekkil ad imun ag tmiwant [tasekla tamiwant] ig iqqnen da ɣar yimi (aqemmum) urid ɣar usekkil?

Ittban-ay maknaw irem-a n “tsekla tamiwant” ila izemmer ad yili d amsegged g uremmus-ines mli zg-s tettwanna: tsekla umi ittwaεawad ufares gi tmiwant, am tqessist tamirayt s umedya ig ittwaɣennjen ɣar tseḍmiwin timeɣnajin timatrarin tikermin i wufuɣ-ines g udlis, εawed nzemmer ad tt-nini i tmezgunin timirayin umi ittwaεawed ufares gi tmiwant, ad nini i tmezgunt tamirayt ig ittwaggen x usayes n umezgun s tmiwant. Maca qa irem-a ittedwal d tamukrist xmi zg-s ittwaqqar uremmus n tefrekt n zdat n tsekla tarifit. Maɣar?

G unebdu n 2023, issfaq-ay uselmad Suliman Lbeɣdadi, deg yict tɣimit d tamassant giɣ-tt kid-s gi Selwan, ɣar tillit n yirem n “orature” ig ittawḍen ad isken εlayen ɣar uremmus n “tmiwant” ig ittwasexdamen maknaw d irem akniw amaziɣ n (orale, oralité), maca irem-a (orature) iffeɣ-dd s tmerniwt n uḍfir “ture” (illan ɣar “littérature” [tasekla]) i “ora” (i dd-ittwaqeẓẓfen zi “oral” [afris n tmesla]) ḥuma ad zag-s isken ɣar tẓuri n wawal ig ittwaggen g usati amiwan. [Ijj uqadi d ameqqran i uselmad amerzu Suliman Lbeɣdadi x uṛeẓẓem-ines i tiṭawin-inu ɣar uremmus-a d nnfeε i day-dd-yuwi g usegged-a anermus mix da ɣa ssiwleɣ].

Aremmus-a rriɣ-as ict taynit temɣar wami ɣa dewleɣ ɣar Lḥusima, minzi s udwal-inu ɣar-s mux immers d tɣennant i day-iṭṭfen kid-s ḥuma ad ssneɣ tideffirin timesɣura n wufuɣ-ines, tban-ay-dd ad dd-ssidfeɣ ɣar Tmaziɣt Tamirayt n Arif irem n “Tamesla”, maknaw d asuɣel anermus – asniram, i “orature”, miz ɣa qqimeɣ sskaneɣ lebda ɣar tẓuri ig issexdamen ameẓẓuɣ maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n tiwḍi n twuri-ines tamiwant, uxa ad tili tsekla -amux nenna iεda- tesskan ɣar tẓuri ig issexdamen asekkil maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n twuri-ines tamirayt.

D amya iɣa naf ixef-nneɣ neqqar qa mala dinni ci n umuti kkint zg-s tẓuriwin n wawal gi Tussna Tamaziɣt, aqa netta d amuti i kkint zi “tmesla” (tamiwant) ɣar “tsekla” (tamirayt), uxa ad tili tẓuṛi -i tent-ismunan- temmuti zi tmeslant ɣar tseklant, niɣ ad nini, s uxezzer anermus nneɣni, qa temmuti zi tmiwant ɣar tmirayt.

D tidet mala nenna qa ci n wanawen n tsekla kkin-dd zi ci n wanawen n tmesla am tqessisin d tenfas, maca qa d tidet εawed mala nenna qa “tasekla” teffeɣ-dd zi “tmesla” bla ma ad txemmem ad tedwel εad ɣar “tmesla”.

Tasekla d illis n yijj usatal urid d asatal i dd-ijjin tamesla. Tasekla tessers i yexf-ines tisaɣulin tuzɣinin – timassanin maci d tinni mig dd- tuli “tmesla”, εawed terẓa aṭṭas n yizerfan mig dd-ulin yimesneflulen n tmesla, s uya ig ittili wufuɣ-ines d ufuɣ n bla adwal.

D amya εawed i ɣa nini qa Tamesla nettat d taẓuṛi ig issexdamen imesli maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n twuri-ines tanaẓuṛt, uxa ad tili Tmesla tesmun ɣar dixel-ines qqaε anawen n tẓuri ig issexdamen imesli maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n twuri-nsen tanaẓurt, anawen-a netnin d: izlan imiwanen, tiqessisin timiwanin, iɣennijen, llɣa, aẓawan, inzan imiwanen, tinfas timiwanin, tiḥuja n twafit, d tmezgunin timiwanin…atg.

Uxa εawed ad tili Tsekla tesmun ɣar dixel-ines qqaε anawen n tẓuri ig issexdamen asekkil maknaw d tifrezt tadeslant n twuri-ines tanaẓurt, anawen-a netnin d: tadyazt, ungalen, tinfas timirayin, timezgunin timirayin, iḍrisen…atg.

Ad dd-nedwel da, s tazzla, ɣar terzutin d tɣuriwin ig issxedmen -gi tutlayin nneɣni- “tadyazt tameɣnajt” g uraq n “uɣennij”, ḥuma ad tent-issen umeɣri. Maca zdat ma ad tent-issen, qa uɣil xaf-i ma ad as ssiwleɣ x usatal n tɣuriwin-a i daneɣ-dd-ijjin iremmusen-a deg yegran n twuri-nsen tamassant zeg yijj uɣezdis, d twafit n yixef-nsen deg yisatalen n tutlayin i ten-dd-ijjin zeg uɣezdis nneɣni.

Tasedlist takadimit tarifit ceṭṭent-as dd waṭṭas n terzutin d tɣuriwin ig ittwaggen gi tesdawiyin s Tefransist d Teεrabt d Teglinzit d Teṣpanyut, jjint ict tzaɣart d tameqqrant gi tekli tamaynut n Tmaziɣt Tamirayt n Arif, s yijj n wagla dag-s i neɣra wami ila nella d imeḥḍaren gi tesdawit n Wejda (2012-2016), zg-s i ssentan (zi 2007 ar wassa) yiselmaden-nneɣ ig iqqimen xezzren ɣur-s maknaw d tasaɣult i twuri-nsen takadimit tamaziɣt, zg-s i ssersen tadesla tamassant i marra agla-nneɣ azerfan amensay, kid-sen nican i ɣa tadef Tmaziɣt n Arif ɣar tetrara d tmassant; tiwuriwin-a ɣzint mliḥ x yinagrawen n tẓuṛiwin timaziɣin timensayin, rzunt x tefraz-nsent d wanawen-nsent d yiremmusen-nsent d yixezziren-nsent d yegriwen-nsent…

Agla-ya ixess-as i Tmaziɣt Tamirayt n Arif ad ɣur-s tt-id-tessuɣel ḥuma ad texzer mani i tt-ssawaḍent tzemmar-ines deg yegran-a imassanen, ad kid-sen temεanad ḥuma ad dd- tessufeɣ zi tzemmar-ines min tt ɣa ijjen temqudda kid-sent gi tzemmar. Qa talayt n tutlayin rid tettili assa s min teεna tutlayt g umezruy-ines, ula tettili s mecḥal i ɣur-s n yedlisen n wayda waha, maca tettili s umaynu d ubeddel i tettegg i min dd-innḍen i tilawt-ines d yegran imassanen i das-itterran taynit.

  1. Aɣennij amaziɣ n Arif gi tɣuriwin n Yinemzaɣen d Yimaziɣen: axezzer deg wagla amassan.

(Ar twala nneɣni)

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