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Ttlat 28 Mayyu 2024

Sini n tiggwdi, jar waki w waraki

Afilm «Asussem ineqqen» n Fawzi Aksil d ijj zeg yijj di Arrif

Tira: Soudian Darraz

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Deg useggwas n 1919, ifser Sigmund Freud (1856- 1939) ijj n uwenni sadu yisem THE UNCANNY  i di yeṣṣiɣ tfawet xef cra n yiɣezdisa d ixataren zeg waraki (Inconscience), iqqar dag-s aqqa aterras yegga am udrar-nni n udfel deg ufilem n Tiṭanik, ijj n ukṛaḍ (un tiers) waha i dd-ittbanen yiwa, tnayen n yikṛaḍen swadday i waman, wer dd-ttbinen. Tnayen-a n yikṛaḍen, sesskanen ɣer yijj n uɣezdis innuffer zeg-neɣ, sadu tatiwant, wer t-nettwili, wer zeg-s nettici ca, maca d aṭṭuf (Contrôle) i qaɛ timegga-nneɣ. Aya i t-yejjin ad as-yewcc isem n waraki, wer yelli ca deg waki n uterras.    (Freud, 2003)

Freud, di tɣuriwin-nnes, ittawi-tt aṭṭaṣ di tmeslayin i di dd-yettban waraki, am tarjiwin d yibukebbasen niɣ d tezgilin n wawal, timeslayin i wer xef ittegg uterras aṭṭuf. Araki, issnuffara min yellan d amekbut (Refoulé) niɣ d tuɛɛefn/Agression  i wer izemmer uterras ad zeg-s yessiwel niɣ ad zeg-s yenɛem aqqa-t dag-s deg waḍuf. Aterras i yellan ɣer-s aki, wer yessin aqqa-t ɣer-s, sminzi tettnuffur ḥuma ad yiban zzat i unamun aqqa netta d ijj n uterras d aṣebḥan, yerṣa. Ḥuma ad tettban tteswirt-nneɣ tanimat deg unamun d tamweqqert, nessnuffara qaɛ areddej-a deg yijjt n texxamt qqaren-as araki.

Araki ɣer Freud wer dd-yittban mɣer di tmeslayin i di wer ɣer-neɣ dag-sent fus, izemmer ad yiban di tmeslayin nettegg-iten-t ɛemdan, s ɣana-nneɣ, am tẓuṛiwin. Deg wustal-nnes i tẓuṛiwin n tiggwdi (tullisin d yifilmen d tfelwin n tiggwdi), yufa Freud aqqa snuffarant ɣer awalen-asent asedwel d ijj, umi i yettlaɣa Return of the Repressed (Adwal n imekbat), lebda tiẓuṛiwin n tiggwdi tettilint wenḍent xef cra n tmeslayt tennuffer tessaggwad, cwayt uca ad tettban di tilawt, am lexyal i dd-ittekkren zeg umdel niɣ amsekkef n yidammen niɣ amẓiw Frankenstein umi dd-tteffɣen idammen zi tiṭṭawin.

S uya, imariten n tiggwdi ttagmen-dd tira n yifilmen-nsen zi tarjiwin/ibukebbasen iẓeṛṛen deg yiḍes (araki), zeg-s i dd-ṣṣufuɣen tiggwdi-a ɣer tfawt (aki).

Maca din amzaray jar yifilmen n tiggwdi d ibukebbasen , abukebbas d tḥajit d tasiryalit tettetter timsirin d yiɣembab zi tilawt, tettegg zeg-sent isinaryuten ssaggwaden, nettferraɣ dag-s taycitin n tiggwdi d yimunas-nneɣ, isinaryuten nzerri-ten deg yiḍes-nneɣ s bezzez xef-neɣ; Mani nettaf ifilmen n tiggwdi d ibukebbasen i dd-nettsaqer neccin s waki-nneɣ, nettejja-ten ad aneɣ-ssiggwden. Freud, ittwala mala nsettef tiẓuṛiwin n tiggwdi, nettaf-itent udsent aṭṭaṣ ɣer waraki. Stephen King (1947) yeqqer aqqa qaɛ tullisin n tiggwdi zedɣent di tneqqit-nni i yellan jar waki d waraki, s minzi taẓuṛi-a nettari-tt s tiggwdi i yellan ɣers iẓuṛan aked waraki n uterras.   (Hendawi)

S usmun, tullisin n yifilmen n tiggwdi d araki tenneqqleb, deg umkan ma araki ad yumaṛ imẓiwen-nnes xaf-neɣ deg yiḍeṣ-nneɣ, tiẓuṛiwin n tiggwdi tettlaɣant-idd nnit i yemẓiwen-a. S uya, qaɛ ifilmen n tiggwdi i neẓṛa d tawwurt jar tnayen n dduneytin, jar tnayen n tullisin, tullist d takit nettwala-tt jar tiṭṭawin-nneɣ deg umiẓaṛ (écran), d tullist d tarakit tennuffer di cra n tteṣwert n umẓiw niɣ n rayaḥ.

Di min i dd-yegguren, ad negg tizemmer ḥuma ad nesban mamek sini n tiggwdi ittawi-dd tullisin d tṣawar n yimẓiwen ɣar umiẓaṛ, maca deg uḍuf ittawi-dd araki d min-zi i tuɣa itteggwed uterras d umnus di lweqt n ufilm.

Deg useggwas n 1920, ɣer awreni tmeggarut n umenɣi n dduniyt amezwar d treẓẓit tameqqṛant i yeẓṛa Aliman d ureddej n lɛeskeṛ d qaɛ min tuɣa ɣer-s, afilm Alimani « The Cabinet of Dr.Caligari » i yittenḍen xef yijj n uḥudri qqaren-as Fransis, iruḥ ad iẓer ijj n ukaṛnabal mani i yemsager aked umeṣṣuḍes s lhend D.Caligari. Zi senni, tudert-nnes tedwel xaf-s d taberkant, mɣer tamara d inexliɛen. Di temsirin n ufilm, D.Caligari yemneɛ qaɛ iwdan deg ufus s uṣuḍeṣ n lhend al mani yejja ijjen zeg-sen ad yegg timenɣiwin meɣrent.

Deg udlis « From Caligari to Hitler », yenna umassan alimani Siegfried Kracouer (1889-1966) aqqa afilm « The Cabinet of Dr.Caligari » ittawi-dd s yijjt n tebridt d tarakit xef tmexsa n unamun alimani i yijj n artista d aṣeḥḥar, ad as-uwcen timexsa-nsen ḥuma ad asen-dd-yewc taneɣlebt ad zeg-s dd-erren tanemɣurt-nsen, waxxa taneɣlebt-a ad tt-ttass s tmenɣiwin meɣrent d waṭṭaṣ n txeṣṣuṛa. Tawengimt-a, teqqim deg waraki n uterras alimani, teqqim tennufer al mani i-dd-iban s unzuf amessenjem Adolf Hitler.  (Siegfried, 1966, T.24)

Amari David Lewis (1942), yiwi-dd aya di lkitab-nnes « Triumph of the will », iqqer aqqa Adolf Hitler deg useggwas n 1932 tuɣa ɣer-s yijj n tuqqna aked umeṣṣuḍeṣ s lhend Erik Jan Hanussen i d as-itticcen tisfawin n yinaw i t-iɛawnen xef uṣuḍeṣ n ugdud.   (David, 2019, T.157)

Deg iseggʷusa n 30, umi tuɣa tlaɣan The Roering Twenties, lweqt i yeccuren s tẓuṛiwin d uraren d uṭeṛṛeḥ akunumi. Xaf-s, uca ad yass Bukebbas n uṛdel anemɣur (Great depression) i yekkwtin tabuṛṣat tamirikanut, i ɣa-yemmuttyen ɣar qaɛ dduniyt.  (Library of colgress)

Deg iseggʷusa-ya n tẓawa d lxedmet i wer yellin  d umarret, iban-dd ufilm « Frankenstein » deg 1931. Tullist n yijj umassan ixeẓẓer ɣer zzat, ixes ad yiraḥ yiggwej, ismun cra n tqatcutin zi taddutin n yenni i yemmuten ḥuma ad iṣenneɛ yijj n umẓiw.

Mamek tuɣa d-asen i yewdan aqqa tabuṛṣat d axxam ibelleɛ, dag-s laman, zemmren ad sserṣen din tinɛacin d wurɣ-nsen, uca faqen-dd ijj n wass ufin qaɛ igelwan i yesmunen ruḥen. Ula d axxam i belɛen i di ṣennɛen Frankenstein wer yettɣimi ca di laman, iddwel amẓiw-a wer zemmren ad t-menɛen, iffeɣ-asen fus uca yebda ad yineɣ qaɛ min yufa deg ubrid-nnes.

S uya, afilm-a isseskan ɣer waṛdel nni akunumi, i wawal n leḥsab d tbuṛṣat d qaɛ timassanin i di wemnen yiwdan wer tiwiḍ ad asen-tini maɣar jar wass d llilet qaɛ igelwan i yesmunen ḍwan, axmi ca n wumẓiw iban-dd zi walu uca yucar qaɛ tarjiwin i di tuɣa llan.

Amirikan, ḥuma ad tazzel xef umẓiw Hitler, tlaɣa-dd xef yijj n umẓiw d ameqqṛan xef-s, tṣenneɛ lbumba tumika (Bombe atomique) i yejjin dduniyt  maṛṛa teggwed zeg umenɣi aṣemmaḍ lami Rusya tiweḍ ad tṣenneɛ ula d nettat lbumba tumika. Maca, aydud i yeccin aɛmud s lbumba-a, treddej-it d aydud n Jjappun.

S uya, nettaf ifilmen am « Godzilla » i dd-yeffɣen deg useggʷas n 1954, adaynaṣuṛ i yettwasnen aṭṭaṣ deg lweqt nni, i dd-yeffɣen ɣar dduniyt s ssibbet n umẓenẓeṛ tumika (Rayonnement atomique), iffeɣ-dd zeg istudyuten n Toho ijappuniyen. Amẓiw awaf i yessawalen xef tqatcut i yullɣen i tejja lbumba deg ijappuniyen, i ten-yejjin ad dewlen ɣar zzman aqbur n udinuṣuṛ, zman n luḥuc (Sauvage) i di wer yelli umkan i tiffugna niɣ i wefgan.

Ifilmen n tiggwdi, wer dd-ttisen ca -s tebridt d tarakit- maɣer xef tiggwdiwin tifantaẓiyin tisiyyasiyin, nettaf-iten tettasen-tt-id am tiggwdiwin tidelsanin, am ufilem n « Rosemary’s Baby » i dd-yeffɣen deg useggʷas n 1968, i yiṭṭenḍen xef Rosemary, tamɣert s uɛeddis tettedren zzat i cra n jjiṛan d Ccwaṭen. Ccwaṭen-a, xeḍfen arba-nni deg uɛedis n Rosemary ḥuma ad yili d ijj n uɣezdis zi telɣiwin (rituel) d leɛwayed-nsen.

Afilem-a, yuss-dd deg iseggwusa n 60, mani tuɣa wuɛlant tmijjawin n temɣarin s tuttra n tlelli, d umherweḍ xef temsirin am tlellit n temɣert deg uɣḍal n yisigman, d useqsi xef tarba ma ittlul-dd s tmexsa (Décision) n yimma-as ? niɣ s tmexsa n twannaḍt i xaf-s yessrusan fus zdat ma dd-ɣa-yexleq ? S uya, afilem-a wer dd-ittiwi ca zeg lexyal waha, netta ittawi-dd amukris d tiggwdi n tidet deg unamun n zman-nni. Aya i yemsaren i werba n Rosemary i yettwamneɣ xef mamek-nnes zzat ma ad yessij xef tudert.

Deg iseggwusa n 90 d umezwar n 2000, amenɣi aṣemmaḍ isala, amirikan tessers ḍaṛ, wer neqqim ca netteggwed zeg umenɣi tumika tteffeɣ-dd di tteṣwert n Godzilla niɣ d akummunist ittedder di rweṣṭ n yimirikanuten di tteṣwert n Zumbi …atg. Waxxa ammu tiggwdi aqqa-tt ɛad tedder deg waraki, ad muttyen ifilmen ɣer wanaw nniḍen, i di wer yelli ca anuḥyu jar bnadem d waff (fantôme).

Deg 1999, ad nẓeṛ afilm « Sixth sense » i yettɛawaden xef yijj n wuḍbib psikyateɣ, yessgenfa yijj n uḥenjir d ameẓẓyan, yeqqer aqqa yettwala yinni i yimmuten. Maca ɣer umegger, ad naff aqqa aḥenjir-a wer yehlic ca, ɣer-s tizemmer n tidet, psikyateɣ d yijj zeg yinni i yimmuten, s qaɛ tussna nni ɣer-s wer yiweḍ ca ad yessen ixef-nnes aqqa yemmut.

Deg useggwas n 2001, iffeɣ-dd ufilm « The Others » i yeṭṭenḍen xef yijjt n temɣert d tamesgent qqaren-as Grace, i yettedren aked taṛwa-nnes di leqṣer, tettraja argaz-nnes ad yirewweḥ zeg umenɣi. Deg ufilem-a, nttedder tiggwdiwin n twacumt-a zeg yimẓiwen d iwaffen i d asen-dd yunḍen, ttɣiman deg-neɣ, nrezzu mɣer melmi ɣa nfekken zeg iwaffen-a. Maca ɣer umegger n ufilm, ad yiban aqqa twacumt-a d nitni i yellan d iwaffen, imẓiwen-nni d nitni i yellan d yiwdan n tidet.

Di tsarit-a i negga, neẓṛa mamek ifilmen n tiggwdi d tawwurt jar waki i dd-ittbanen di tqessisin artistat-nsen d imẓiwen d iwaffen, d waraki i dd-ittbanen di tiggwdiwin timzarayin, tettbeddal aked ubeddel n zzman d imukan.

De ifilmen n tiggwdi, aterras ittegg tizemmer ḥuma ad yibeddel tiggwdiwin n tidet, nnufrent deg uḍuf-nsen, ɣer tullisin tettenḍent xef tiggwdiwin d lexyal cqant ujar. Afgan ixes ad yerwel zeg ibukebbasen i wer izemmer ad xafsen yessers fus, ɣar uṣenneɛ n yibukebbasen d lexyalat waha, ḥuma ad acan s waṭṭuf (Contrôle) xmi i ten-ɣellben, d taẓyudi n wenjam.

Freud, yufa aqqa jjehd n tnefsiyt tettass-dd xmi i nfehhem araki-nneɣ (taycitin d tmexsa d tiggwdiwin i ntteggwed ad zeg-sen nessiwel) d usemquddi-nnes aked waki (tteṣwert taneɣrumt i dd-nessbana deg unamun):

Unexpressed emotions will never die, they buried alive

They will come forth later in uglier ways.

Taycitin i zi wer nessiwil, tettɣimant meḍlent am ddrent ḥuma ad ffɣent s yijj n tebrit tecqa ujar xef mamek tuɣa llant.

Xmi i nettmuttuy ɣar Arrif, wer nettaf mɣer yijj n ufilem d ayujil, ikessi tiweṣṣaf n ufilem n tiggwdi, nessawal da xef ufilem «Asussem Ineqqen» i dd-yeṣṣufeɣ Fawzi AKSIL deg useggwas n 2013.

Asufeɣ:  Fawzi Aksil

Asinaryu: Fawzi Aksil d David Rodriguez

Afares: Aksil d Muḥemmed Buzeggu « Taziri production »,

Anemhal n ufares: Muḥemmed Zahid

Assulef asini: Fawzi Aksil

Adikur: Hicam jundi

Azemmem: Ilyass laxmas

Lmakyaj d ucuwwaf: Veronica Almendros

Aṛṛuḍ: Prop Master d Saɛid Qaḍi

Tamuzikt: Midḥat Ḥanbali

Amara n umesli: Roberto Herrador

Kamiṛa: Jawad bucarṭa d Milud Aydi

Aḍṛiṣ: Ḥmad Rami

Aɣennij i zi isala ufilm “Mayemmi” yura-t Muḥemmed Buzeggu, tɣennej-itt  Iman Busnan ‘Tifyur’.

Iwriken i dd nuyem zeg ufilem, d cra n tefras nsen:

TirartAmirarTilalt-nnes deg ufilm
Lwiza  Nadya Ssɛidi– Tuss-dd zeg ṣeppanya aked twacumt-nnes, maɣar yemma-as tuɣa tettmetta. – Zdat ɣa temmet yemma-as, ad tessen aqqa wer telli d yemma-as n tidet, sseni ad tebda tarezzut xef yemma-as n tidet. – Ad taff yemma-as n tidet, ad tt-teksi zi ṣpiṭer n ibuhaliyen. – Ad taff tettemsarent-as aṭṭaṣ n tmeslayin ssaggʷadent di taddert  (taddert i yexlan) ni i di ɣa-tedder.
SamirƐebd lwaḥid Zzawgi– Argaz n Lwiza – Ad t-yineɣ waff n baba-as n Lwiza ɣer umegger n ufilm. – Tuɣa ittedder netta d twacumt-nnes deg uṣeppanyu
Anir– Memmi-s n Lwiza d Samir – Ittwala waff n xalti-s, ittirar akid-s
Muṣṭafa Zzerwali– Baba-as n Lwiza – Issek-itt xef temɣart-nnes Tlayetmas – Inɣa illi-s Sana s taggayt n bezzez – Awareni temnawt-nnes, idwel d waff. Wenni i ɣa-yadfen taddert i yixlan, ineqq-it – Inɣa Samir
TlayetmasNaɛima Ɛellac– Imma-as n Lwiza – Tenɣa argaz-nnes, tenti-t zzat i taddert – 20 n yiseggʷusa wer tessiwel, al mani teẓṛa illi-s Lwiza. – Ad tt-tessarwel Lwiza zi ṣpiṭer. – Ad tt-yezdeɣ waff n waryaz-nnes, ad tneɣ ixef-nnes ḥuma ad yemmet ula d netta akid-s.
Najat– Xalti-s n Lwiza d takniwt n Tlayetmas – D nettat i yessegmen Lwiza – Temmut s lehlac
SanaIslam Lɛarif– Ultma-as tameqqṛant n Lwiza – Inɣa-tt baba-as s taggayt n bezzez. – Tedwel d waff, tettedder di taddert n twacumt-nnes – Tettirar lebda aked Anir
Muḥemmed Ameɛṭug– D aḍibib di ṣpiṭer n yibuhaliyen i di tuɣa Tlaytmas
YasminSamira Lmeṣluḥi– Txeddem di taddert n yemmas n Lwiza – Ad tt ineɣ lexyal n babas n Lwiza
IbennayenFahd Butkenturt Benɛisa Lmestiri Ṭṭayyib Lmeɛɛac– Ɛedlen taddert taqdimt n yemma-as n lwiza – Inɣi-ten waff n baba-as n Lwiza aked webrid
NunutLwiza Buṣeṭṭac– D tagezzant i ɣa-yesseknen i Lwiza amkan n yemma-as

Isefsayen n ddṛama tasinit, ttawin-tt aṭṭaṣ di beddu d umegger n ufilm, s minzi dag-s i dd-tbanen abeddel i ittemsaren xef imirar ixataren, mamek dag-s i dd-ittban atim n ufilm.

S umedya, afilm n “Asusem ineqqen”, nettwala di 15min tamezwarut zeg umsawal, aqqa d asefser i usurs n ufilm d uskan ɣer imirar nnes ixataren i xef ittirar, ittegg-asen asissen. Mamek yegga ula d asissen i taddert mani ɣer msarent temsirin, itticc tawlaft n laryaḥ i tt-izedɣen s uḥenjir i yudfen axxam-a uca ḥarten xaf-s cra n yimẓiwen wer twassnen zeg iḍaṛen lami iruḥ ad yerwel, ɛewqen-t. Taddert-a i wer yizeɛɛem ula d ijj ad tt-yadef niɣ ad ɣer-s yads niɣ ad xaf-s yessiwel ad yucc aneɣmis-nnes d min i yemsaren dinn. Mamek nettaf di tminutin-a beɛda, amirar artista Lwiza teṭṭebheḍ s lexber i d as-tuca tenni i tt-irebban/xalt-is, lami d as-tenɛem am tettmetta aqqa wer telli ca d yemma-as n tidet, uca tucas yijj n tebrat ḥuma ad xaf-s terzu.

Maca, ɣer wereni 15min n usissen, nettaf Lwiza d urgaz-nnes Samir d memm-is Anir, udfen taddert-a ad zedɣen, ɛedlen-tt s uswizi n yibennayen. Ibennayen-a,  yiweḍ lexber n tmennawt-nsen lami zzag-sen tenneqleb ṭumubin xef ubrid, attaɣ nɣin-ten laryaḥ lami zeɛmen ad ɛedlen taddart-nni, ittban mana-aya lami tuɣa ɛlayen ad yedder ijj zzag-sen, maca ikemmel xafs wemẓiw amezduɣ.

Di 15min tameggarut n ufilm, nettaf imiraren-a tekka xaf-sen aṭṭaṣ n tamara, Samir izdeɣ-it waff, isseggwar-it mamek i yixes, al mani t-yenɣa lami isala min irezzu zzag-s.

Deg ugensu n ufilm, aṭṭaṣ n temsirin tettegmant ḥuma ad awḍen imirar ɣar umeggar, afsay i wer dd-yusin al mani i ttiwi yemma-as -i tufa di ṣpiṭer n ibuhaliyen- ɣer umẓiw-a i yeffɣen d waff n baba-as umi wer teɛdil tamenɣiwt yemma-as. Ɣer awareni i umcubbec yemɣer jar twacumt maṛṛa aked wemẓiw, iweḍ amẓiw-a ad yadef taddut n temɣert-nnes. Tameggarut-a, tenɣa ixef-nnes ḥuma ad kid-s yemmet ula d netta.

Afilem a, dag-s qaɛ tifras n ufilem n tiggwdi deg umaḍal, la zeg uɣeẓḍiṣ n usinaryu d usexdem n titiknikin n ussulef d tfawin d usexdem n imeslitin, ula zeg uɣeẓḍiṣ n twengimt i dd-yuyem zeg yijjt n tmukrist d tanamunt di Arrif, asrusi n uḍaṛ n wergaz xef temɣert d uḥuzi-nnes xef tma, d usemẓi zeg waddur-nnes.

Anaw-a n yifilmen ɣers aṭṭaṣ n imfarrjen di dduniyt, maɣer ittaf dag-s umfarrej ixef-nnes, ittḥada-yas araki-nnes. Maca di Arrif, wer nettif mɣar ijj n ufilem d ayujil, afilem n « Asussem ineqqen ». Qaɛ nessen aqqa afilm n tiggwdi itetter ijjt n tẓuṛi temɣer, taẓuṛi n tiggwdi i dd-ittaymen ixemmimen zeg waraki, arni xef-s titiknitin n usswellef i yecqan. Maca, ma mɣar mana-aya i yejjin anaw-a n yifelmen iggwej ɛad xef usayes n usini di Arrif ? niɣ din cra n tmeslayin nniḍen ?

Tabiblyugrafit

– David,L. (2019). Triumph_of_The_Will. Flamer, Brighton.

– FREUD,S. (2003). The Uncanny. Asuɣel n: MCLINTOCK,D. London: Penguin books.

– HENDAWI,M. السينما العالمية من منظور الأنواع السينمائية. Ittwaxzẓer : 05/02/2023. https://vu.fr/nwsj

– Library of colgress. Americans React to the Great Depression. Ittwaxẓer: 07/02/2023, https://vu.fr/BsoJ

– Siegfried,K. (1966). From Caligari to Hitler A Psychological History of the German Film. USA : Princeton University Press.

– The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920).  German film. Directed by Robert Wiene.

– Frankenstein (1931). American film. Directed by James Whale.

– Godzilla (1954). Japanese film. Directed by Ishirō Honda.

– Rosemary’s Baby is (1968). American film. Directed by Roman Polanski.

– The Sixth Sense  (1999).  American film. Directed by M. Night Shyamalan.

– The Others (2001). Spanish film. Directed by Alejandro Amenábar.

– Asussem Ineqqen (2013). Rifish film. Directed by  Faouzi Aksil and David Rodriguez.

Timaynutin

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